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Edgar Allan Poe (19 stycznia 1809 - 7 października 1849) był amerykańskim poetą, nowelistą, redaktorem i krytykiem literackim, przedstawicielem amerykańskiego romantyzmu. Znany szczególnie z powieści kryminalnych i makabreski, Poe był jednym z pierwszych amerykańskich pisarzy posługujących się formą opowiadania. Zapoczątkował również gatunek powieści detektywistycznej oraz przyczynił się znacznie do rozwoju literatury science fiction. Poe był pierwszym amerykańskim literatem, który próbował utrzymywać się wyłącznie z pisarstwa, w konsekwencji często popadał w trudności finansowe.
Urodził się w Bostonie, Massachusetts, jako Edgar Poe. Jego rodzice zmarli kiedy miał zaledwie dwa lata. Został wychowany, choć nigdy formalnie adoptowany, przez Johna i Frances Allanów z Richmond w stanie Virginia. Na krótko podjął studia na uniwerstecie stanowym, potem przez dwa lata służył w armii. Zerwawszy kontakt z przybraną rodziną, Poe rozpoczął karierę pisarską wydając anonimowo tom wierszy, Tamerlane and Other Poems (1827), podpisany jako dzieło "Bostończyka". Wkrótce przeniósł się do Baltimore, Maryland, gdzie zamieszkał ze swoimi krewnymi i zmienił obszar zainteresowań z poezji na prozę. Następnych kilka lat Poe spędził pracując dla magazynów, gdzie zasłynął ze swojego stylu krytki literackiej. Praca zmuszała go do częstych przeprowadzek pomiędzy kilkoma miastami, między innymi Filadelfią w stanie Pennsylvania i Nowym Jorkiem. W roku 1835, w Baltimore, ożenił się ze swoją trzynastoletnią kuzynką Virginią Clemm. Największy sukses odniósł Poe w 1845, kiedy to opublikował wiersz Kruk. Jego żona zmarła na gruźlicę w dwa lata później. Poe planował wydanie własnego magazynu "The Penn" (później nazwę zmieniono na "The Stylus"), jednak zmarł zanim udało mu się zrealizować te zamierzenia. Poe zmarł 7 października 1849 w Baltimore, w wieku 40 lat. Przyczyna śmierci jest nieznana, najczęściej wymienia się alkohol, cholerę, narkotyki, chorobę serca, wściekliznę, gruźlicę lub samobójstwo.
Twórczość Poego w znaczny sposób wpłynęła zarówno na literaturę Stanów Zjednoczonych i światową, jak i na inne dziedziny, np. kosmologię i kryptografię. Wpływy Poego można dostrzec również w kulturze popularnej, w muzyce, filmach, telewizji i grach wideo. Niektóre z domów w których mieszkał zostały przekształcone w muzea jego imienia.
- 1 Życie i kariera
- 2 Death
- 3 Literary style and themes
- 4 Legacy
- 5 Poe in popular culture
Życie i kariera | edytuj kod
Młodość | edytuj kodThis plaque marks the approximate location where Edgar Poe was born in Boston.
Poe urodził się w rodzinie szkocko-irlandzkich emigrantów w Bostonie, Massachusetts, 19 stycznia 1809. Był drugim dzieckiem aktorki Elizabeth Arnold Hopkins Poe i aktora Davida Poe Jr. Edgar Poe miał starszego brata, Williama Henry'ego Leonarda Poe, i młodszą siostrę Rosalie. Ojciec opuścił rodzinę w 1810 roku, a matka zmarła rok później na gruźlicę. Poe został wychowany w domu Johna Allana, bogatego kupca szkockiego pochodzenia, zamieszkałego w Richmond w stanie Virginia. Allan zajmował się handlem rozmaitymi dobrami (między innymi tabaką, tkaninami, pszenicą, nagrobkami), a także niewolnikami. Allanowie pełnili funkcję rodziny zastępczej, choć nigdy formalnie nie adoptowali Poego; dali mu jednak nazwisko.
Poe został ochrzczony w Kościele Episkopalnym w 1812. Rodzina, wraz z Egdarem i żoną Allana, Frances Valentine Allan, popłynęłą do Anglii w 1815. Edgar przez krótki czas w 1815 uczęszczał do gimnazjum w Irvine (Szkocja), miejscowości, w której urodził się John Allan. W 1816 zamieszkał z rodziną w Londynie, gdzie uczył się w szkole z internatem w Chelsea do lata 1817 roku. Następnie został przyjęty do Reverend John Bransby’s Manor House School w Stoke Newington, wówczas na przedmieściu (6 kilometrów na północ od Londynu).
W 1820 Poe powrócił wraz z rodziną do Richmond. W 1825 zmarł William Galt, najbogatszy człowiek w Richmond i zarazem przyjaciel Johna Allana, zostawiając Allanowi kilka akrów ziemi. Spadek został oszacowany na 750 tysięcy dolarów. Część pieniędzy Allan przeznaczył na kupno dwupiętrowego, murowanego domu, nazwanego Moldavia.
W lutym 1826 Poe rozpoczął studia językowe na Uniwersytecie w Virginii, założonym zaledwie rok wcześniej przez Thomasa Jeffersona. Obowiązywały tam ścisłe zakazy hazardu, posiadania broni, palenia tytoniu i spożywania alkoholu, które jednak zazwyczaj były ignorowane.
The university, in its infancy, was established on the ideals of its founder, Thomas Jefferson. It had strict rules against gambling, horses, guns, tobacco and alcohol, but these rules were generally ignored. Jefferson had enacted a system of student self-government, allowing students to choose their own studies, make their own arrangements for boarding, and report all wrongdoing to the faculty. The unique system was still in chaos, and there was a high drop-out rate. During his time there, Poe lost touch with Royster and also became estranged from his foster father over gambling debts. Poe claimed that Allan had not given him sufficient money to register for classes, purchase texts, and procure and furnish a dormitory. Allan did send additional money and clothes, but Poe's debts increased. Poe gave up on the university after a year, and, not feeling welcome in Richmond, especially when he learned that his sweetheart Royster had married Alexander Shelton, he traveled to Boston in April 1827, sustaining himself with odd jobs as a clerk and newspaper writer. At some point he started using the pseudonym Henri Le Rennet.Poe was first stationed at Boston's Fort Independence while in the army.
Military career | edytuj kod
Unable to support himself, on May 27, 1827, Poe enlisted in the United States Army as a private. Using the name "Edgar A. Perry", he claimed he was 22 years old even though he was 18. He first served at Fort Independence in Boston Harbor for five dollars a month. That same year, he released his first book, a 40-page collection of poetry, Tamerlane and Other Poems, attributed with the byline "by a Bostonian". Only 50 copies were printed, and the book received virtually no attention. Poe's regiment was posted to Fort Moultrie in Charleston, South Carolina and traveled by ship on the brig Waltham on November 8, 1827. Poe was promoted to "artificer", an enlisted tradesman who prepared shells for artillery, and had his monthly pay doubled. After serving for two years and attaining the rank of Sergeant Major for Artillery (the highest rank a noncommissioned officer can achieve), Poe sought to end his five-year enlistment early. He revealed his real name and his circumstances to his commanding officer, Lieutenant Howard, who would only allow Poe to be discharged if he reconciled with John Allan. Howard wrote a letter to Allan, who was unsympathetic. Several months passed and pleas to Allan were ignored; Allan may not have written to Poe even to make him aware of his foster mother's illness. Frances Allan died on February 28, 1829, and Poe visited the day after her burial. Perhaps softened by his wife's death, John Allan agreed to support Poe's attempt to be discharged in order to receive an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point.
Poe finally was discharged on April 15, 1829, after securing a replacement to finish his enlisted term for him. Before entering West Point, Poe moved back to Baltimore for a time, to stay with his widowed aunt Maria Clemm, her daughter, Virginia Eliza Clemm (Poe's first cousin), his brother Henry, and his invalid grandmother Elizabeth Cairnes Poe. Meanwhile, Poe published his second book, Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane and Minor Poems, in Baltimore in 1829.
Poe traveled to West Point and matriculated as a cadet on July 1, 1830. In October 1830, John Allan married his second wife, Louisa Patterson. The marriage, and bitter quarrels with Poe over the children born to Allan out of affairs, led to the foster father finally disowning Poe. Poe decided to leave West Point by purposely getting court-martialed. On February 8, 1831, he was tried for gross neglect of duty and disobedience of orders for refusing to attend formations, classes, or church. Poe tactically pled not guilty to induce dismissal, knowing he would be found guilty.
He left for New York in February 1831, and released a third volume of poems, simply titled Poems. The book was financed with help from his fellow cadets at West Point, many of whom donated 75 cents to the cause, raising a total of $170. They may have been expecting verses similar to the satirical ones Poe had been writing about commanding officers. Printed by Elam Bliss of New York, it was labeled as "Second Edition" and included a page saying, "To the U.S. Corps of Cadets this volume is respectfully dedicated." The book once again reprinted the long poems "Tamerlane" and "Al Aaraaf" but also six previously unpublished poems including early versions of "To Helen", "Israfel", and "The City in the Sea". He returned to Baltimore, to his aunt, brother and cousin, in March 1831. His elder brother Henry, who had been in ill health in part due to problems with alcoholism, died on August 1, 1831.
Publishing career | edytuj kod
After his brother's death, Poe began more earnest attempts to start his career as a writer. He chose a difficult time in American publishing to do so. He was the first well-known American to try to live by writing alone and was hampered by the lack of an international copyright law. Publishers often pirated copies of British works rather than paying for new work by Americans. The industry was also particularly hurt by the Panic of 1837. Despite a booming growth in American periodicals around this time period, fueled in part by new technology, many did not last beyond a few issues and publishers often refused to pay their writers or paid them much later than they promised. Poe, throughout his attempts at pursuing a successful literary career, would be forced to constantly make humiliating pleas for money and other assistance for the rest of his life.Poe married his 13-year old cousin, Virginia Clemm. Her early death may have inspired some of his writing.
After his early attempts at poetry, Poe had turned his attention to prose. He placed a few stories with a Philadelphia publication and began work on his only drama, Politian. The Saturday Visitor, a Baltimore paper, awarded Poe a prize in October 1833 for his short story "MS. Found in a Bottle". The story brought him to the attention of John P. Kennedy, a Baltimorian of considerable means. He helped Poe place some of his stories, and introduced him to Thomas W. White, editor of the Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond. Poe became assistant editor of the periodical in August 1835; however, within a few weeks, he was discharged after being found drunk repeatedly. Returning to Baltimore, Poe secretly married Virginia, his cousin, on September 22, 1835. She was 13 at the time, though she is listed on the marriage certificate as being 21. Reinstated by White after promising good behavior, Poe went back to Richmond with Virginia and her mother. He remained at the Messenger until January 1837. During this period, its circulation increased from 700 to 3,500. He published several poems, book reviews, criticism, and stories in the paper. On May 16, 1836, he had a second wedding ceremony in Richmond with Virginia Clemm, this time in public.
The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym was published and widely reviewed in 1838. In the summer of 1839, Poe became assistant editor of Burton's Gentleman's Magazine. He published a large number of articles, stories, and reviews, enhancing his reputation as a trenchant critic that he had established at the Southern Literary Messenger. Also in 1839, the collection Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque was published in two volumes, though he made little money off of it and it received mixed reviews. Poe left Burton's after about a year and found a position as assistant at Graham's Magazine.
In June 1840, Poe published a prospectus announcing his intentions to start his own journal, The Stylus. Originally, Poe intended to call the journal The Penn, as it would have been based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In the June 6, 1840 issue of Philadelphia's Saturday Evening Post, Poe bought advertising space for his prospectus: "Prospectus of the Penn Magazine, a Monthly Literary journal to be edited and published in the city of Philadelphia by Edgar A. Poe." The journal would never be produced before Poe's death. Around this time, he attempted to secure a position with the Tyler administration, claiming he was a member of the Whig Party. He hoped to be appointed to the Custom House in Philadelphia with help from President Tyler's son Robert, an acquaintance of Poe's friend Frederick Thomas. Poe failed to show up for a meeting with Thomas to discuss the appointment in mid-September 1842, claiming to be sick, though Thomas believed he was drunk. Though he was promised an appointment, all positions were filled by others.
One evening in January 1842, Virginia showed the first signs of consumption, now known as tuberculosis, while singing and playing the piano. Poe described it as breaking a blood vessel in her throat. She only partially recovered. Poe began to drink more heavily under the stress of Virginia's illness. He left Graham's and attempted to find a new position, for a time angling for a government post. He returned to New York, where he worked briefly at the Evening Mirror before becoming editor of the Broadway Journal and, later, sole owner. There he alienated himself from other writers by publicly accusing Henry Wadsworth Longfellow of plagiarism, though Longfellow never responded. On January 29, 1845, his poem "The Raven" appeared in the Evening Mirror and became a popular sensation. Though it made Poe a household name almost instantly, he only was paid $9 for its publication.
The Broadway Journal failed in 1846. Poe moved to a cottage in the Fordham section of The Bronx, New York. That home, known today as the "Poe Cottage", is on the southeast corner of the Grand Concourse and Kingsbridge Road. Virginia died there on January 30, 1847. Biographers and critics often suggest Poe's frequent theme of the "death of a beautiful woman" stems from the repeated loss of women throughout his life, including his wife.
Increasingly unstable after his wife's death, Poe attempted to court the poet Sarah Helen Whitman, who lived in Providence, Rhode Island. Their engagement failed, purportedly because of Poe's drinking and erratic behavior. However, there is also strong evidence that Whitman's mother intervened and did much to derail their relationship. Poe then returned to Richmond and resumed a relationship with a childhood sweetheart, Sarah Elmira Royster.
Death | edytuj kodEdgar Allan Poe is buried in Baltimore, Maryland. The circumstances and cause of his death remain uncertain.
On October 3, 1849, Poe was found on the streets of Baltimore delirious, "in great distress, and... in need of immediate assistance", according to the man who found him, Joseph W. Walker. He was taken to the Washington College Hospital, where he died on Sunday, October 7, 1849, at 5:00 in the morning. Poe was never coherent long enough to explain how he came to be in his dire condition, and, oddly, was wearing clothes that were not his own. Poe is said to have repeatedly called out the name "Reynolds" on the night before his death, though it is unclear to whom he was referring. Some sources say Poe's final words were "Lord help my poor soul." All medical records, including his death certificate, have been lost. The precise cause of Poe's death remains a mystery. Newspapers at the time reported Poe's death as "congestion of the brain" or "cerebral inflammation", common euphemisms for deaths from disgraceful causes such as alcoholism. Many theories have been suggested, including delirium tremens, heart disease, epilepsy and meningeal inflammation. One of the most common beliefs is that Poe was a victim of cooping, first suggested as early as 1872.
Griswold's "Memoir" | edytuj kod
The day Edgar Allan Poe was buried, a long obituary appeared in the New York Tribune signed "Ludwig". It was soon published throughout the country. The piece began, "Edgar Allan Poe is dead. He died in Baltimore the day before yesterday. This announcement will startle many, but few will be grieved by it." "Ludwig" was soon identified as Rufus Wilmot Griswold, an editor, critic and anthologist who had borne a grudge against Poe since 1842. Griswold somehow became Poe's literary executor and attempted to destroy his enemy's reputation after his death.
Rufus Griswold wrote a biographical article of Poe called "Memoir of the Author", which he included in an 1850 volume of the collected works. Griswold depicted Poe as a depraved, drunk, drug-addled madman and included Poe's letters as evidence. Many of his claims were either outright lies or distorted half-truths. For example, it is now known that Poe was not a drug addict. Griswold's book was denounced by those who knew Poe well, but it became a popularly accepted one. This occurred in part because it was the only full biography available and was widely reprinted and in part because readers thrilled at the thought of reading works by an "evil" man. Letters that Griswold presented as proof of this depiction of Poe were later revealed as forgeries.
Literary style and themes | edytuj kod1860s portrait by Oscar Halling after an 1849 daguerreotype
Genres | edytuj kod
Poe's best known fiction works are Gothic, a genre he followed to appease the public taste. His most recurring themes deal with questions of death, including its physical signs, the effects of decomposition, concerns of premature burial, the reanimation of the dead, and mourning. Many of his works are generally considered part of the dark romanticism genre, a literary reaction to transcendentalism, which Poe strongly disliked. He referred to followers of the movement as "Frogpondians" after the pond on Boston Common. and ridiculed their writings as "metaphor-run", lapsing into "obscurity for obscurity's sake" or "mysticism for mysticism's sake." Poe once wrote in a letter to Thomas Holley Chivers that he did not dislike Transcendentalists, "only the pretenders and sophists among them."
Beyond horror, Poe also wrote satires, humor tales, and hoaxes. For comic effect, he used irony and ludicrous extravagance, often in an attempt to liberate the reader from cultural conformity. In fact, "Metzengerstein", the first story that Poe is known to have published, and his first foray into horror, was originally intended as a burlesque satirizing the popular genre. Poe also reinvented science fiction, responding in his writing to emerging technologies such as hot air balloons in "The Balloon-Hoax".
Poe wrote much of his work using themes specifically catered for mass market tastes. To that end, his fiction often included elements of popular pseudosciences such as phrenology and physiognomy.
Literary theory | edytuj kod
Poe's writing reflects his literary theories, which he presented in his criticism and also in essays such as "The Poetic Principle". He disliked didacticism and allegory, though he believed that meaning in literature should be an undercurrent just beneath the surface. Works with obvious meanings, he wrote, cease to be art. He believed that quality work should be brief and focus on a specific single effect. To that end, he believed that the writer should carefully calculate every sentiment and idea. In "The Philosophy of Composition", an essay in which Poe describes his method in writing "The Raven", he claims to have strictly followed this method. It has been questioned, however, if he really followed this system. T. S. Eliot said: "It is difficult for us to read that essay without reflecting that if Poe plotted out his poem with such calculation, he might have taken a little more pains over it: the result hardly does credit to the method." Biographer Joseph Wood Krutch described the essay as "a rather highly ingenious exercise in the art of rationalization".
Legacy | edytuj kod
Literary influence | edytuj kod
During his lifetime, Poe was mostly recognized as a literary critic. Fellow critic James Russell Lowell called him "the most discriminating, philosophical, and fearless critic upon imaginative works who has written in America", though he questioned if he occasionally used prussic acid instead of ink. Poe was also known as a writer of fiction and became one of the first American authors of the 19th century to become more popular in Europe than in the United States. Poe is particularly respected in France, in part due to early translations by Charles Baudelaire. Baudelaire's translations quickly became definitive renditions of Poe's work throughout Europe.
Poe's early detective fiction tales starring the fictitious C. Auguste Dupin laid the groundwork for future detectives in literature. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle said, "Each [of Poe's detective stories] is a root from which a whole literature has developed.... Where was the detective story until Poe breathed the breath of life into it?" The Mystery Writers of America have named their awards for excellence in the genre the "Edgars". Poe's work also influenced science fiction, notably Jules Verne, who wrote a sequel to Poe's novel The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket called The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym, Le sphinx des glaces. Science fiction author H. G. Wells noted, "Pym tells what a very intelligent mind could imagine about the south polar region a century ago."
Like many famous artists, Poe's works have spawned innumerable imitators. One interesting trend among imitators of Poe, however, has been claims by clairvoyants or psychics to be "channeling" poems from Poe's spirit beyond the grave. One of the most notable of these was Lizzie Doten, who in 1863 published Poems from the Inner Life, in which she claimed to have "received" new compositions by Poe's spirit. The compositions were re-workings of famous Poe poems such as "The Bells", but which reflected a new, positive outlook.
Even so, Poe has not received only praise. William Butler Yeats was generally critical of Poe, calling him "vulgar". Transcendentalist Ralph Waldo Emerson reacted to "The Raven" by saying, "I see nothing in it" and derisively referred to Poe as "the jingle man". Aldous Huxley wrote that Poe's writing "falls into vulgarity" by being "too poetical" - the equivalent of wearing a diamond ring on every finger.
Physics and cosmology | edytuj kod
Eureka: A Prose Poem, an essay written in 1848, included a cosmological theory that presaged the big bang theory by 80 years, as well as the first plausible solution to Olbers' paradox. Poe eschewed the scientific method in Eureka and instead wrote from pure intuition. For this reason, he considered it a work of art, not science, but insisted that it was still true and considered it to be his career masterpiece. Even so, Eureka is full of scientific errors. In particular, Poe's suggestions opposed Newtonian principles regarding the density and rotation of planets.
Cryptography | edytuj kod
Poe had a keen interest in the field of cryptography. He had placed a notice of his abilities in the Philadelphia paper Alexander's Weekly (Express) Messenger, inviting submissions of ciphers, which he proceeded to solve. In July 1841, Poe had published an essay called "A Few Words on Secret Writing" in Graham's Magazine. Realizing the public interest in the topic, he wrote "The Gold-Bug" incorporating ciphers as part of the story. Poe's success in cryptography relied not so much on his knowledge of that field (his method was limited to the simple substitution cryptogram), as on his knowledge of the magazine and newspaper culture. His keen analytical abilities, which were so evident in his detective stories, allowed him to see that the general public was largely ignorant of the methods by which a simple substitution cryptogram can be solved, and he used this to his advantage. The sensation Poe created with his cryptography stunt played a major role in popularizing cryptograms in newspapers and magazines.
Poe had an influence on cryptography beyond increasing public interest in his lifetime. William Friedman, America's foremost cryptologist, was heavily influenced by Poe. Friedman's initial interest in cryptography came from reading "The Gold-Bug" as a child — interest he later put to use in deciphering Japan's PURPLE code during World War II.
Poe in popular culture | edytuj kod
Poe as a character | edytuj kod
The historical Edgar Allan Poe has appeared as a fictionalized character, often representing the "mad genius" or "tormented artist" and exploiting his personal struggles. Many such depictions also blend in with characters from his stories, suggesting Poe and his characters share identities. Often, fictional depictions of Poe use his mystery-solving skills in such novels as The Poe Shadow by Matthew Pearl.The Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site in Philadelphia is one of several preserved former residences of Poe.
Preserved homes, landmarks, and museums | edytuj kod
No childhood home of Poe is still standing, including the Allan family's Moldavia estate. The oldest standing home in Richmond, the Old Stone House, is in use as the Edgar Allan Poe Museum, though Poe never lived there. The collection includes many items Poe used during his time with the Allan family and also features several rare first printings of Poe works. The dorm room Poe is believed to have used while studying at the University of Virginia in 1826 is preserved and available for visits. Its upkeep is now overseen by a group of students and staff known as the Raven Society.
The earliest surviving home in which Poe lived is in Baltimore, preserved as the Edgar Allan Poe House and Museum. Poe is believed to have lived in the home at the age of 23 when he first lived with Maria Clemm and Virginia (as well as his grandmother and possibly his brother William Henry Leonard Poe). It is open to the public and is also the home of the Edgar Allan Poe Society. Of the several homes that Poe, his wife Virginia, and his mother-in-law Maria rented in Philadelphia, only the last house has survived. The Spring Garden home, where the author lived in 1843 – 44, is today preserved by the National Park Service as the Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site. Poe's final home is preserved as the Poe Cottage in the Bronx, New York.Błąd w przypisach: Brak znacznika zamykającego </ref> po otwartym znaczniku <ref>
Other Poe landmarks include a building in the Upper West Side, where Poe temporarily lived when he first moved to New York. A plaque suggests that Poe wrote "The Raven" here. In Boston, a plaque hangs near the building where Poe was born once stood. Believed to have been located at 62 Carver Street (now Charles Street), the plaque is possibly in an incorrect location. The bar in which legend says Poe was last seen drinking before his death still stands in Fells Point in Baltimore, Maryland. Now known as The Horse You Came In On, local lore insists that a ghost they call "Edgar" haunts the rooms above.
Poe Toaster | edytuj kod
Adding to the mystery surrounding Poe's death, an unknown visitor affectionately referred to as the "Poe Toaster" has paid homage to Poe's grave every year since 1949. As the tradition has been carried on for more than 50 years, it is likely that the "Poe Toaster" is actually several individuals; however, the tribute is always the same. Every January 19, in the early hours of the morning, the man makes a toast of cognac to Poe's original grave marker and leaves three roses. Members of the Edgar Allan Poe Society in Baltimore have helped in protecting this tradition for decades. On August 15, 2007, Sam Porpora, a former historian at the Westminster Church in Baltimore where Poe is buried, claimed that he had started the tradition in the 1960s. The claim that the tradition began in 1949, he said, was a hoax in order to raise money and enhance the profile of the church. His story has not been confirmed, and some details he has given to the press have been pointed out as factually inaccurate.
- ↑ Stableford, Brian. "Science fiction before the genre." The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction, Eds. Edward James and Farah Mendlesohn. Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press, 2003. pp. 18 – 19.
- ↑ a b Meyers, 138
- ↑ Meyers, 256
- ↑ a b Allen, Hervey. "Introduction". The Works of Edgar Allan Poe, New York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1927.
- ↑ Canada, Mark, ed. "Edgar Allan Poe Chronology". Canada's America. 1997. Retrieved on 3 June 2007.
- ↑ Meyers, 8
- ↑ Meyers, 9
- ↑ Silverman, 16 – 18
- ↑ Silverman, 27 – 28
- ↑ Meyers, 21 – 22
- ↑ Silverman, 32 – 34
- ↑ Meyers, 32
- ↑ Silverman, 41
- ↑ Cornelius, Kay. "Biography of Edgar Allan Poe", Bloom's BioCritiques: Edgar Allan Poe, Ed. Harold Bloom, Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2002. p. 13 ISBN 0-7910-6173-6
- ↑ Meyers, 32
- ↑ Meyers, 33 – 34
- ↑ Meyers, 35
- ↑ Silverman, 43 – 47
- ↑ Meyers, 38
- ↑ Cornelius, Kay. "Biography of Edgar Allan Poe", Bloom's BioCritiques: Edgar Allan Poe, Ed. Harold Bloom, Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2002. pp. 13 – 14 ISBN 0-7910-6173-6
- ↑ Sova, 5
- ↑ Krutch, 32
- ↑ Cornelius, Kay. "Biography of Edgar Allan Poe", Bloom's BioCritiques: Edgar Allan Poe, Ed. Harold Bloom, Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2002. p. 14 ISBN 0-7910-6173-6
- ↑ Meyers, 54 – 55
- ↑ Hecker, William J. Private Perry and Mister Poe: The West Point Poems. Louisiana State University Press, 2005. pp. 49 – 51
- ↑ Meyers, 50 – 51
- ↑ Hecker, William J. Private Perry and Mister Poe: The West Point Poems. Louisiana State University Press, 2005. pp. 53 – 54
- ↑ Quinn, 187 – 188
- ↑ Whalen, 64
- ↑ a b Quinn, 305
- ↑ Silverman, 247
- ↑ Whalen, 74
- ↑ Silverman, 99
- ↑ Whalen, 82
- ↑ Meyers, 139
- ↑ Sova, 162
- ↑ Sova, 225
- ↑ Meyers, 73
- ↑ Meyers, 85
- ↑ Silverman, 124
- ↑ Meyers, 113
- ↑ Sova, 39, 99
- ↑ Meyers, 119
- ↑ Silverman, 159
- ↑ Quinn, 321 – 322
- ↑ Silverman, 186
- ↑ Meyers, 144
- ↑ Silverman, 187
- ↑ Silverman, 188
- ↑ Silverman, 179
- ↑ a b Sova, 34
- ↑ Quinn, 455
- ↑ Hoffman, 80
- ↑ Ostrom, John Ward. "Edgar A. Poe: His Income as Literary Entrepreneur", Poe Studies 5.1 (1982): 5
- ↑ Edgar Allan Poe Cottage. Bronx Historical Society. [dostęp 2007-10-13].
- ↑ Weekes, Karen. "Poe's feminine ideal," The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe, Ed. Kevin J. Hayes. Cambridge University Press, 2002. p. 149. ISBN 0-521-79727-6
- ↑ Benton, Richard P. "Friends and Enemies: Women in the Life of Edgar Allan Poe", Myths and Reality: The Mysterious Mr. Poe. Baltimore: Edgar Allan Poe Society, 1987. p. 19 ISBN 0-9616449-1-5
- ↑ Quinn, 628
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- ↑ a b Meyers, 255
- ↑ Bramsback, Birgit (1970). "The Final Illness and Death of Edgar Allan Poe: An Attempt at Reassessment", Studia Neophilologica (University of Uppsala), XLII. p. 40
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- ↑ John Evangelist Walsh: Midnight Dreary: The Mysterious Death of Edgar Allan Poe. Wyd. Paperback ed.. New York: St. Martin's Minotaur, 2000, s. 32 – 33. ISBN 0-312-22732-9.
- ↑ Meyers, 259. To read Griswold's full obituary, see Edgar Allan Poe obituary at Wikisource.
- ↑ a b Hoffman, 14
- ↑ Quinn, 693
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- ↑ a b Royot, Daniel (2002). "Poe's Humor", The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79727-6. p. 57.
- ↑ Kennedy, J. Gerald (1987). Poe, Death, and the Life of Writing. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03773-2. p. 3.
- ↑ Koster, Donald N. (2002). "Influences of Transcendentalism on American Life and Literature", Literary Movements for Students Vol. 1. David Galens, ed. Detroit: Thompson Gale. p. 336.
- ↑ Ljunquist, Kent (2002). "The poet as critic", The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe, Kevin J. Hayes, ed. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79727-6 p. 15
- ↑ Royot, Daniel. "Poe's humor," as collected in The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe, Kevin J. Hayes, ed. Cambridge University Press, 2002. pp. 61 – 62. ISBN 0-521-79727-6
- ↑ Ljunquist, Kent. "The poet as critic" collected in The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe, Kevin J. Hayes, ed. Cambridge University Press, 2002. p. 15. ISBN 0-521-79727-6
- ↑ Silverman, 169
- ↑ Silverman, 88
- ↑ Fisher, Benjamin Franklin (1993). "Poe's 'Metzengerstein': Not a Hoax", On Poe: The Best from "American Literature. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. p. 142, 149
- ↑ Tresch, John (2002). "Extra! Extra! Poe invents science fiction!", The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe, Kevin J. Hayes, ed. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79727-6. p. 114.
- ↑ Whalen, 67
- ↑ Edward Hungerford (1930). "Poe and Phrenology", American Literature Vol. 1. p. 209 – 31.
- ↑ Erik Grayson (2005). "Weird Science, Weirder Unity: Phrenology and Physiognomy in Edgar Allan Poe", Mode Vol. 1 p. 56 – 77.
- ↑ Krutch, 225
- ↑ Kagle, Steven E. "The Corpse Within Us", Poe and His Times: The Artist and His Milieu, Ed. Benjamin Franklin Fisher IV. Baltimore: The Edgar Allan Poe Society, Inc., 1990. ISBN 0-9616449-2-3. p. 104
- ↑ Edgar A. Poe: Tale-Writing — Nathaniel Hawthorne. Godey's Lady's Book, November 1847, pp. 252 – 256. [dostęp 2007-03-24].
- ↑ Wilbur, Richard (1967). "The House of Poe", Poe: A Collection of Critical Essays, Ed. Robert Regan. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. p. 99
- ↑ Krutch, 225
- ↑ Jannaccone, Pasquale (translated by Peter Mitilineos) (1974). "The Aesthetics of Edgar Poe", Poe Studies Vol. 7.1. p. 3.
- ↑ Hoffman, 76
- ↑ Krutch, 98
- ↑ Quinn, 432
- ↑ Meyers, 258
- ↑ Harner, Gary Wayne. "Edgar Allan Poe in France: Baudelaire's Labor of Love", Poe and His Times: The Artist and His Milieu, Ed. Benjamin Franklin Fisher IV. Baltimore: The Edgar Allan Poe Society, 1990. p. 218. ISBN 0-9616449-2-3
- ↑ Poe Encyclopedia, 103
- ↑ Neimeyer, Mark. "Poe and Popular Culture," Ed. Kevin J. Hayes. The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-521-79727-6 p. 206
- ↑ Poe Encyclopedia, 364
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- ↑ Meyers, 281
- ↑ Eric Walter Carlson: A Companion to Poe Studies. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1996, s. 476. ISBN 0-313-26506-2.
- ↑ Meyers, 274
- ↑ Silverman, 265
- ↑ Emerson's Estimate of Poe. [dostęp 2008-03-02].
- ↑ Huxley, Aldous. "Vulgarity in Literature," Poe: A Collection of Critical Essays, Ed. Robert Regan, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1967. p. 32
- ↑ Rombeck, Terry. "Poe's little-known science book reprinted", Lawrence Journal-World & News. January 22, 2005
- ↑ Smoot, George and Keay Davidson. Wrinkles in Time. Harper Perennial, Reprint edition (October 1, 1994) ISBN 0-380-72044-2
- ↑ a b Meyers, 214
- ↑ Silverman, 399
- ↑ Meyers, 219
- ↑ Sova, 82
- ↑ a b Silverman, 152
- ↑ Rosenheim, 2, 6
- ↑ Friedman, William F. "Edgar Allan Poe, Cryptographer", On Poe: The Best from "American Literature". Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1993. p. 40 – 41
- ↑ Rosenheim, 15
- ↑ Rosenheim, 146
- ↑ Neimeyer, Mark. "Poe and Popular Culture", The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-521-79727-6 p. 209
- ↑ Gargano, James W. "The Question of Poe's Narrators," Poe: A Collection of Critical Essays, Ed. Robert Regan. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1967. p. 165
- ↑ Janet Maslin: The Poe Shadow. W: International Herald Tribune [on-line]. 2006-06-06. [dostęp 2007-10-13].
- ↑ Raven Society Homepage. University of Virginia. Retrieved on 16 December 2007.
- ↑ Niccole Burns: Poe wrote most important works in Philadelphia. School of Communication - University of Miami, 2006-11-15. [dostęp 2007-10-13].
- ↑ Van Hoy, David C. "The Fall of the House of Edgar". The Boston Globe, February 18, 2007
- ↑ Glenn, Joshua. The house of Poe -- mystery solved! The Boston Globe April 9, 2007
- ↑ Lake, Matt. Weird Maryland. Sterling Publishing, New York, 2006. ISBN 1-4027-3906-0 p. 195.
- ↑ Hall, Wiley. "Poe Fan Takes Credit for Grave Legend," Associated Press, August 15, 2007.
- ↑ Associated Press: Man Reveals Legend of Mystery Visitor to Edgar Allan Poe's Grave. FoxNews.com, August 15, 2007. [dostęp 2007-12-15].