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Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) jest prywatnym uniwersytetem położonym w Cambridge w Massachusetts w Stanach Zjednoczonych. MIT składa się z pięciu szkół i jednego college'u posiadającego 32 wydziały.[1] Priorytetem uczelni jest silny nacisk na teorię, przykłady i interdyscyplinarne naukowe oraz technologiczne badania.

MIT was founded by William Barton Rogers in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States. Although based upon European models of an institute of technology, MIT's founding philosophy of "learning by doing" made it an early pioneer in the use of laboratory instruction,[2] undergraduate research, and progressive architectural styles. As a federally funded research and development center during World War II, MIT scientists developed defense-related technologies that would later become integral to computers, radar, and inertial guidance. After the war, MIT continued to have a high profile throughout the Space Race and Cold War and its reputation expanded beyond its core competencies in science and engineering into the social sciences including economics, linguistics, political science, and management.

MIT's endowment and annual research expenditures are among the largest of any American university.[3] MIT graduates and faculty are noted for their technical acumen (63 Nobel Laureates and 29 MacArthur Fellows[4] as of October 2006), entrepreneurial spirit (a 1997 report claimed that the aggregated revenues of companies founded by MIT affiliates would make it the twenty-fourth largest economy in the world),[5] and irreverence (the popular practice of constructing elaborate pranks, or hacking, often has anti-authoritarian overtones).


Spis treści

History | edytuj kod

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Initial years and vision | edytuj kod

Szablon:Rquote In 1861, The Commonwealth of Massachusetts approved a charter for the incorporation of the "Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston Society of Natural History" submitted by William Barton Rogers. Rogers sought to establish a new form of higher education to address the challenges posed by rapid advances in science and technology in the mid-19th century with which classic institutions were ill-prepared to deal.[6] The Rogers Plan, as it came to be known, was rooted in three principles: the educational value of useful knowledge, the necessity of “learning by doing,” and integrating a professional and liberal arts education at the undergraduate level.[7][8]

Because open conflict in the Civil War broke out only a few months later, MIT's first classes were held in rented space at the Mercantile Building in downtown Boston in 1865.[9] Construction of the first MIT buildings was completed in Boston's Back Bay in 1866 and MIT would be known as "Boston Tech." During the next half-century, the focus of the science and engineering curriculum drifted towards vocational concerns instead of theoretical programs. Proposals to merge MIT with Harvard, "the school up the river", began as early as 1869.[10] but this and other proposals in 1900 and 1914 were ultimately defeated.[11][12][13][14]

Expansion | edytuj kod

A plaque of George Eastman, founder of Kodak in Building 6.

The attempted mergers occurred in parallel with MIT's continued expansion beyond the classroom and laboratory space permitted by its Boston campus. President Richard Maclaurin sought to move the campus to a new location when he took office in 1909.[15] An anonymous donor, later revealed to be George Eastman, donated the funds to build a new campus along a mile-long tract of swamp and industrial land on the Cambridge side of the Charles River. In 1916, MIT moved into its handsome new neoclassical campus designed by the noted architect William W. Bosworth which it occupies to this date. The new campus triggered some changes in the stagnating undergraduate curriculum, but in the 1930s President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President (effectively Provost) Vannevar Bush drastically reformed the curriculum by re-emphasizing the importance of "pure" sciences like physics and chemistry and reducing the work required in shops and drafting. Despite the difficulties of the Great Depression, the reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering."[16] The expansion and reforms thus cemented MIT's academic reputation on the eve of World War II by attracting scientists and researchers who would later make significant contributions in the Radiation Laboratory, Instrumentation Laboratory, and other defense-related research programs.

MIT was drastically changed by its involvement in military research during World War II. Bush was appointed head of the enormous Office of Scientific Research and Development and directed funding to only a select group of universities, including MIT.[17][18] During the war and in the post-war years, this government-sponsored research contributed to a fantastic growth in the size of the Institute's research staff and physical plant as well as placing an increased emphasis on graduate education.[19]

As the Cold War and Space Race intensified and concerns about the technology gap between the U.S. and the Soviet Union grew more pervasive throughout the 1950s and 1960s, MIT's involvement in the military-industrial complex was a source of pride on campus.[20][21] However, by the late 1960s and early 1970s, intense protests by student and faculty activists (an era now known as "the troubles")[22] against the Vietnam War and MIT's defense research required that the MIT administration spin classified and defense-related research off into what would become the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory and Lincoln Laboratory.

Challenges and controversies | edytuj kod

MIT has been nominally coeducational since admitting Ellen Swallow Richards in 1870. Female students, however, remained a tiny minority (numbered in dozens) prior to the completion of the first wing of a women's dormitory, McCormick Hall, in 1963.[23][24] By 1993, MIT's female/male ratio had risen to 32:68.[25] In 2006, 47.5% of the students enrolled were women. Richards also became the first female member of MIT's faculty, specializing in sanitary chemistry.[26]

In 1998, MIT became the first major research university to acknowledge the existence of a systematic bias against female faculty in its School of Science and supported efforts toward corrective measures although the study's methods were controversial.[27][28] A 2003 MIT news release cites various statistics suggesting that the status of women improved during the latter years of President Vest's tenure.[29] Susan Hockfield, a molecular neurobiologist, became MIT's 16th president on December 6, 2004 and is the first woman to hold the post. While the student body has become more balanced in recent years, women are still a distinct minority among faculty.

The 1984 dismissal of David F. Noble, a historian of technology, became a cause celebre about the extent to which academics are granted "freedom of speech" after he published several books and papers critical of MIT's and other universities' reliance upon corporations and the military.[30] In 1986, Professor David Baltimore, a Nobel Laureate, became embroiled in an investigation of research misconduct that led to Congressional hearings in 1991.

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, many American politicians and business leaders accused MIT and other universities of contributing to a declining economy by transferring taxpayer-funded research and technology to international — especially Japanese — firms that were competing with struggling American businesses.[31]

In 1991, the Justice Department filed an antitrust suit against MIT and the eight Ivy League colleges for holding "Overlap Meetings" to prevent bidding wars over promising students from consuming funds for need-based scholarships. While the Ivy League institutions settled, MIT contested the charges on the grounds that the practice was not anticompetitive because it ensured the availability of aid for the greatest number of students and ultimately prevailed when the Justice Department dropped the case in 1994.[32]

In 2000, Professor Ted Postol accused the MIT administration of attempting to whitewash potential research misconduct at the Lincoln Lab facility involving a ballistic missile defense test, though a final investigation into the matter has not been completed.

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, a number of student deaths resulted in considerable media attention to MIT's culture and student life.[33] After the alcohol-related death of Scott Krueger in September 1997 as a new member at the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, MIT began requiring all freshmen to live in the dormitory system.[34] The 2000 suicide of MIT undergraduate Elizabeth Shin drew attention to suicides at MIT and created a controversy over whether MIT had an unusually high suicide rate.[35][36] In late 2001 a task force's recommended improvements in student mental health services[37] were implemented, including expanding staff and operating hours at the mental health center.[38] These and later cases were significant as well because they sought to prove the negligence and liability of university administrators in loco parentis.[39]

In April 2007, Dean of Admissions Marilee Jones resigned after she "misrepresented her academic degrees" when applying for her first position with MIT twenty-eight years prior and never corrected the misrepresentation as she rose through the ranks.[40][41]

Organization | edytuj kod

 Zobacz też: List of Massachusetts Institute of Technology departments.

MIT is "a university polarized around science, engineering, and the arts."[42] MIT has five schools (Science, Engineering, Architecture and Planning, Management, and Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences) and one college (Whitaker College of Health Sciences and Technology), but no schools of law or medicine.[43]

MIT is governed by a 78-member board of trustees known as the MIT Corporation[44] which approve the budget, degrees, and faculty appointments as well as electing the President.[45] MIT's endowment and other financial assets are managed through a subsidiary MIT Investment Management Company (MITIMCo).[46] The chair of each of MIT's 32 academic departments reports to the dean of that department's school, who in turn reports to the Provost under the President. However, faculty committees assert substantial control over many areas of MIT's curriculum, research, student life, and administrative affairs.[47]

MIT students refer to both their majors and classes using numbers alone. Majors are numbered in the approximate order of when the department was founded; for example, Civil and Environmental Engineering is Course I, while Nuclear Science & Engineering is Course XXII.[48] Students majoring in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, the most popular department, collectively identify themselves as "Course VI." MIT students use a combination of the department's course number and the number assigned to the class number to identify their subjects; the course which many American universities would designate as "Physics 101" is, at MIT, simply "8.01."[49]

Campus | edytuj kod

MIT's 168-acre Cambridge campus spans approximately a mile of the Charles River front. The campus is divided roughly in half by Massachusetts Avenue, with most dormitories and student life facilities to the west and most academic buildings to the east. The bridge closest to MIT is the Harvard Bridge, which is marked off in the fanciful unit – the Smoot. The Kendall MBTA Red Line station is located on the far northeastern edge of the campus. The neighborhood of MIT is a mixture of high tech companies combined with residential neighborhoods of Cambridge (see Kendall Square).

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Almost all classes are held on main campus (exceptions include classes held jointly with Harvard or Wellesley, field expeditions, and some IAP classes) although MIT owns or leases a number of research facilities throughout Cambridge and the greater Boston area. MIT buildings all have a number (or a number and a letter) designation and most have a name as well. Typically, academic and office buildings are referred to only by number while residence halls are referred to by name. The organization of building numbers roughly corresponds to the order in which the buildings were built and their location relative (north, west, and east) to the original, center cluster of Maclaurin buildings. Many are connected above ground as well as through an extensive network of underground tunnels, providing protection from the Cambridge weather.

MIT's on-campus nuclear reactor is the second largest university-based nuclear reactor in the United States. The high visibility of the reactor's containment building in a densely populated area has caused some controversy,[50] but MIT maintains that it is well-secured.[51] Other notable campus facilities include a pressurized wind tunnel, a towing tank for testing ship and ocean structure designs, and a low-emission cogeneration plant that serves most of the campus electricity and heating requirements. MIT's campus-wide wireless network was completed in the fall of 2005 and consists of nearly 3,000 access points covering 9.4 million square feet of campus.[52]

Architecture | edytuj kod

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The Stata Center houses CSAIL, LIDS, and the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy Frieze on Building 2 dedicated to Newton

As MIT's school of architecture was the first in the United States,[53] it has a history of commissioning progressive, if stylistically inconsistent, buildings.[54] The first buildings constructed on the Cambridge campus, completed in 1916, are known officially as the Maclaurin buildings after Institute president Richard Maclaurin who oversaw their construction. Designed by William Welles Bosworth, these imposing buildings were built of concrete, a first for a non-industrial — much less university — building in the U.S.[55] The utopian City Beautiful movement greatly influenced Bosworth's design which features the Pantheon-esque Great Dome, housing the Barker Engineering Library, which overlooks Killian Court, where annual Commencement exercises are held. The friezes of the marble-clad buildings around Killian Court are engraved with the names of important scientists and philosophers. The imposing Building 7 atrium along Massachusetts Avenue is regarded as the entrance to the Infinite Corridor and the rest of the campus.

Alvar Aalto's Baker House (1947), Eero Saarinen's Chapel and Auditorium (1955), and I.M. Pei's Green, Dreyfus, Landau, and Weisner buildings represent high forms of post-war modern architecture. More recent buildings like Frank Gehry's Stata Center (2004), Steven Holl's Simmons Hall (2002), and Charles Correa's Building 46 (2005) are distinctive amongst the Boston area's staid architecture[56] and serve as examples of contemporary campus "starchitecture."[54] These buildings have not always been popularly accepted; the Princeton Review includes MIT in a list of twenty schools whose campuses are "tiny, unsightly, or both."[57]

Academics | edytuj kod

Student demographics | edytuj kod

MIT enrolls more graduate students, (approximately 6,000 in total) than undergraduates (approximately 4,000). In 2006, women constituted 44 percent of all undergraduates and 30 percent of graduate students. The same year, MIT students represented all 50 states, the District of Columbia, three U.S. Territories, and 113 foreign countries.

The admissions rate for freshmen in 2006 was 13.3% with over 66.2% of admitted freshmen choosing to enroll. Although graduate admissions are less centralized, they are similarly selective: 19.7% of 16,153 applications were admitted with 61.2% of admitted candidates enrolling.[61]

Undergraduate tuition is $33,400 and graduate tuition is $33,600 per year although 64% of undergraduates receive need-based financial aid and 87% of graduate students are supported by MIT fellowships, research assistantships, or teaching assistantships.[63][64]

Classes | edytuj kod

The Infinite Corridor is the primary passageway through campus.

MIT has an extensive core curriculum required of all undergraduates called the General Institute Requirements (GIRs). The science requirement, generally completed during freshman year as prerequisites for classes in science and engineering majors, comprises two semesters of physics classes covering Classical Mechanics and E&M, two semesters of math covering single variable calculus and multivariable calculus, one semester of chemistry, and one semester of biology. Undergraduates are required to take a laboratory class in their major, eight Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (HASS) classes (at least three in a concentration and another four unrelated subjects), and non-varsity athletes must also take four physical education classes. In May 2006, a faculty task force recommended that the current GIR system be simplified with changes to the science, HASS, and Institute Lab requirements.[65]

Although the difficulty of MIT coursework has been characterized as "drinking from a fire hose,"[66] the failure rate and freshmen retention rate at MIT are similar to other large research universities.[67] Some of the pressure for first-year undergraduates is lessened by the existence of the "pass/no-record" grading system. In the first (fall) term, freshmen transcripts only report if a class was passed while no external record exists if a class was not passed. In the second (spring) term, passing grades (ABC) appear on the transcript while non-passing grades are again rendered "no-record."

Most classes rely upon a combination of faculty led lectures, graduate student led recitations, weekly problem sets (p-sets), and tests to teach material, though alternative curriculae exist, e.g. Experimental Study Group, Concourse, and Terrascope.[68][69] Over time, students compile "bibles," collections of problem set and examination questions and answers used as references for later students. In 1970, the then-Dean of Institute Relations, Benson R. Snyder, published The Hidden Curriculum, arguing that unwritten regulations, like the implicit curriculae of the bibles, are often counterproductive; they fool professors into believing that their teaching is effective and students into believing they have learned the material.

Collaborations | edytuj kod

MIT historically pioneered research collaborations between industry and government.[70][71] Fruitful collaborations with industrialists like Alfred P. Sloan and Thomas Alva Edison lead President Compton to establish an Office of Corporate Relations and an Industrial Liaison Program in the 1930 and 1940s that now allows over 600 companies to license research and consult with MIT faculty and researchers.[72] As several MIT leaders served as Presidential scientific advisers since 1940,[73] MIT established a Washington Office in 1991 to continue to lobby for research funding and national science policy.[74]

MIT has both a friendly rivalry with Harvard University as well as a substantial number of research collaborations such as the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Broad Institute, Center for Ultracold Atoms, and Harvard-MIT Data Center.[75] In addition, students at the two schools can cross-register without any additional fees, for credits toward their own school's degrees. The relationship and proximity[76] between the two institutions is remarkable, considering they are often regarded as two of the top universities in the world.[77]

MIT has a long-standing cross-registration program with Wellesley College and an undergraduate exchange program with the University of Cambridge known as the Cambridge-MIT Institute.[78] MIT has a limited cross-registration programs with Boston University, Brandeis University, Tufts University, Massachusetts College of Art, and the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.[78]

MIT maintains substantial research and faculty ties with independent research organizations in the Boston-area like the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution as well as international research and educational collaborations through the Singapore-MIT Alliance, MIT-Zaragoza International Logistics Program,[79] and MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) program.[80]

MIT students, faculty, and staff are involved in over 50 educational outreach and public service programs through the MIT Museum, Edgerton Center,[81] and MIT Public Service Center.[82][83] Programs like MITES[84] and the Research Science Institute[85] are summer programs targeted towards minority and high school students to encourage them to pursue science and engineering in college. Project Interphase accelerates incoming freshman whose educational backgrounds did not fully prepare them for MIT coursework.[86]

The mass-market magazine Technology Review is published by MIT through a subsidiary company as well as a special edition which also serves as the Institute's official alumni magazine. The MIT Press is a major university press publishing over 200 books and 40 journals annually emphasizing science and technology as well as arts, architecture, new media, current events, and social issues.[87]

Rankings | edytuj kod

MIT ranks #1 in the 2007 Webometrics Rankings of World Universities[1]. MIT is tied with Yale University with an overall rank of #4 among the world's top 200 universities by The Times Higher Education Supplement (2006), #1 worldwide in technology and engineering, and #2 in science.[88] The National Research Council, in a 1995 study ranking research universities in the US, ranked MIT #1 in "reputation" and #4 in "citations and faculty awards."[89] The Lombardi Program on Measuring University Performance has identified MIT as one of the top national research universities since it began ranking in 2000.[90]

In US News and World Report's (USNWR) 2007 rankings, MIT's undergraduate program was tied for #4 with Stanford University and Caltech among national universities. MIT has more top-ranked graduate programs than any other school in the 2007 USNWR survey, including programs in computer science, economics, engineering, mathematics, physics, biology and chemistry.[91][92] MIT's School of Engineering has been ranked first among graduate programs since the magazine first released the results of its survey in 1988.[93] The MIT Sloan School of Management is ranked #2 in the nation at the undergraduate level and #4 among MBA programs by USNWR's 2007 rankings.[94] The Washington Monthly's unusual college rankings, focusing on social mobility and national service, placed MIT #1 in the nation in its inaugural college rankings in 2005, and again in 2006.

Barker Library, inside the Great Dome

Faculty and research | edytuj kod

Szablon:Main article MIT has 998 faculty members, of which 188 are women and 165 are minorities.[95] Faculty are responsible for lecturing classes, advising both graduate and undergraduate students, sitting on academic committees, as well as conducting original research. Many faculty members also have founded companies, serve as scientific advisers, or sit on the Board of Directors for corporations. As of October 2006, 25 MIT faculty members have won the Nobel Prize.[96] Among current and former faculty members, there are 31 National Medal of Science recipients, 80 Guggenheim Fellows, 6 Fulbright Scholars, 29 MacArthur Fellows, and 4 Kyoto Prize winners.[97] Institute Professor is the title awarded to faculty who have made extraordinary contributions to their field and the MIT community.

For fiscal year 2006, MIT spent $587.5 million on on-campus research.[98] The federal government was the largest source of sponsored research, with the Department of Health and Human Services granting $180.6 million, Department of Defense $86 million, Department of Energy $69.9 million, National Science Foundation $66.7 million, and NASA $32.1 million.[98] MIT employs approximately 3,500 researchers in addition to faculty. In the 2006 academic year, MIT faculty and researchers disclosed 523 inventions, filed 321 patent applications, received 121 patents, and earned $42.3 million in royalties.[99]

Research accomplishments | edytuj kod

Strobe photograph taken by an MIT undergraduate in Edgerton's laboratory

In electronics, magnetic core memory, radar, single electron transistors, and inertial guidance controls were invented or substantially developed by MIT researchers. Harold Eugene Edgerton was a pioneer in high speed photography. Claude E. Shannon developed much of modern information theory and discovered the application of Boolean logic to digital circuit design theory.

The GNU project and free software movement originated at MIT

In the domain of computer science, MIT faculty and researchers made fundamental contributions to cybernetics, artificial intelligence, computer languages, and public-key cryptography. Richard Stallman founded the GNU Project and Free Software Foundation while at the AI lab (now CSAIL). Tim Berners-Lee established the W3C at MIT in 1994. Popular technologies like X Window System, Kerberos, Zephyr, and Hesiod were created for Project Athena in the 1980s.

MIT physicists have been instrumental in describing subatomic and quantum phenomena like elementary particles, electroweak force, Bose-Einstein condensates, superconductivity, fractional quantum Hall effect, and asymptotic freedom as well as cosmological phenomena like cosmic inflation.

MIT chemists have discovered number syntheses like metathesis, stereoselective oxidation reactions, synthetic self-replicating molecules, and CFC-ozone reactions. Penicillin and Vitamin A were also first synthesized at MIT.

MIT biologists have also been recognized for their discoveries and advances in RNA, protein synthesis, apoptosis, gene splicing and introns, antibody diversity, reverse transcriptase, oncogenes, and phage resistance. MIT researchers discovered the genetic bases for Lou Gehrig's disease and Huntington's disease. Eric Lander was one of the principal leaders of the Human Genome Project.

MIT economists have been recognized for their contributions to system dynamics, financial engineering, neo-classical growth models, and welfare economics. Fundamental financial models like the Modigliani-Miller theorem and Black-Scholes equation were likewise developed in part at MIT.

UROP | edytuj kod

In 1969, MIT began the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) to enable undergraduates to collaborate directly with faculty members and researchers. The program, founded by Margaret MacVicar, builds upon the MIT philosophy of "learning by doing." Students obtain research projects, colloquially called "UROPs," through postings on the UROP website or by contacting faculty members directly. Over 2,800 undergraduates, 70% of the student body, participate every year for academic credit, pay, or on a volunteer basis.[100] Students often become published, file patent applications, and/or launch start-up companies based upon their experience in UROPs.

Current Initiatives | edytuj kod

In 2001, MIT announced that it planned to put all of its course materials online as part of its OpenCourseWare project by 2007. Building upon MIT's leadership in the "open source movement", Nicholas Negroponte of the MIT Media Lab started the One Laptop per Child initiative to expand computer education and connectivity to children worldwide. Upon taking office in 2004, President Hockfield launched an Energy Research Council to investigate how MIT can respond to the interdisciplinary challenges of increasing global energy consumption.[101]

Student life and culture | edytuj kod

Szablon:Main article MIT faculty and students value meritocracy and technocracy highly.[102][103] MIT has never awarded an honorary degree; the only way to receive an MIT diploma is to earn it.[104] In addition, it does not award athletic scholarships, ad eundem degrees, or Latin honors upon graduation — the philosophy is that the honor is in being an MIT graduate. It does, on rare occasions, award honorary professorships; Winston Churchill was so honored in 1949 and Salman Rushdie in 1993.[105]

MIT students' passion for their subjects is balanced by the perception that their classes are more rigorous than their "grade inflated" peer institutions[106]— a love-hate relationship embodied by the school's informal motto/initialism IHTFP[107] ("I hate this fucking place," jocularly euphemized as "I have truly found paradise," "Institute has the finest professors," etc.).

Many MIT students and graduates wear a large, heavy, distinctive class ring known as the "Brass Rat." Originally created in 1929, the ring's official name is the "Standard Technology Ring." The undergraduate ring design (a separate graduate student version exists, as well) varies slightly from year to year to reflect the unique character of the MIT experience for that class, but always features a three-piece design, with the MIT seal and the class year each appearing on a separate face, flanking a large rectangular bezel bearing an image of a beaver.

Activities | edytuj kod

Szablon:Main article

 Zobacz też: MIT hacks.

MIT has over 380 recognized student activity groups,[108] including a campus radio station, The Tech student newspaper, the "world's largest open-shelf collection of science fiction" in English, model railroad club, a vibrant folk dance scene, weekly screenings of popular films by the Lecture Series Committee, and an annual entrepreneurship competition.

MIT's Independent Activities Period is a four-week long "term" offering hundreds of optional classes, lectures, demonstrations, and other activities throughout the month of January between the Fall and Spring semesters. Some of the most popular recurring IAP activities are the 6.270, 6.370, and MasLab competitions, the annual "mystery hunt", and Charm School.

Many MIT students also engage in "hacking," which encompasses both the physical exploration of areas (often on-campus, but also off) that are generally off-limits (such as rooftops and steam tunnels), as well as elaborate practical jokes. In 2005, Caltech infiltrators hacked MIT's admitted students weekend by distributing T-shirts reading "MIT: Because not everyone can get into Caltech." In 2006, MIT hackers posing as "Howe & Ser Moving Co." responded by stealing Caltech's cannon.[109]

Athletics | edytuj kod

MIT's student athletics program offers 41 varsity-level sports, the largest program in the nation.[110][111] They participate in the NCAA's Division III, the New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference, the New England Football Conference, and NCAA's Division I and Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges (EARC) for crew. They fielded several dominant intercollegiate Tiddlywinks teams through 1980, winning national and world championships.[112] MIT teams have won or placed highly in national championships in pistol, track and field, swimming and diving, cross country, crew, fencing, and water polo. MIT has produced 128 Academic All-Americans, the third largest membership in the country for any division and the highest number of members for Division III.[113]

The Institute's sports teams are called the Engineers, their mascot since 1914 being a beaver, "nature's engineer." Lester Gardner, a member of the Class of 1898, provided the following justification: Szablon:Cquote

The Zesiger sports and fitness center (Z-Center) which opened in 2002, significantly expanded the capacity and quality of MIT's athletics, physical education, and recreation offerings to 10 buildings and 26 acres of playing fields. The 124,000 square-foot facility features an Olympic-class swimming pool, international-scale squash and racketball courts, as well as a two-story fitness center.[114]

Housing | edytuj kod

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Detail of Baker House façade onto the Charles River.

MIT guarantees four-year, dormitory housing for all undergraduates[115] and provides live-in graduate student tutors and faculty housemasters who have the dual role of both helping students and monitoring them for medical or mental health problems. Students are permitted to select their dorm and floor upon arrival on campus, and as a result diverse communities arise in living groups. Although many dorms contain a wide range of living options, the dorms on and east of Massachusetts Avenue are stereotypically more involved in countercultural activities. MIT also has six graduate student dormitories, which house about one-third of the graduate student population.[116] New incoming graduate students are given the highest priority for this housing.

MIT has a very active Greek and co-op system. Approximately one-half of MIT male undergraduates and one-third of female undergraduates[117] are affiliated with one of MIT's 36 fraternities, sororities, and independent living groups (FSILGs).[118] Most FSILGs are located across the river in the Back Bay owing to MIT's historic location there. Since 2002, all freshmen are required to live in the dormitory system for the first year before moving into an FSILG.

Noted alumni | edytuj kod

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Many of MIT's over 110,000 alumni and alumnae have had considerable success in scientific research, public service, education, and business. As of October 2006, 27 MIT alumni have won the Nobel prize and 37 have been selected as Rhodes Scholars.[119]

Alumni currently in American politics and public service include Chairman of the Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke, New Hampshire Senator John E. Sununu, U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman, MA-1 Representative John Olver, CA-13 Representative Pete Stark. MIT alumni in international politics include former U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan, Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Ahmed Chalabi, and former Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu.

MIT alumni founded or co-founded many notable companies, such as Intel, McDonnell Douglas, Texas Instruments, 3Com, Qualcomm, Bose, Raytheon, Koch Industries, Rockwell International, Genentech, and Tyco International.

MIT alumni have also led other prominent institutions of higher education, including the University of California system, Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Carnegie Mellon University, Tufts University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Tecnológico de Monterrey, and Purdue University.[120]

More than one third of the United States' manned spaceflights have included MIT-educated astronauts, among them Buzz Aldrin (Sc. D XVI '63), more than any university excluding the United States service academies.[121]

Przypisy | edytuj kod

  1. MIT Facts 2007: Academic Schools and Departments, Divisions & Sections. [dostęp 2007-02-14].
  2. 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica, volume 4, p. 292: "[MIT] was a pioneer in introducing as a feature of its original plans laboratory instruction in physics, mechanics, and mining."
  3. TheCenter Research University Data. 2005. [dostęp 2006-12-15].
  4. MIT Office of Provost, Institutional Research: MIT MacArthur Fellows. [dostęp 2006-12-16].
  5. Bank of Boston Economics Department: MIT: The Impact of Innovation. March 1997. [dostęp 2006-10-04].
  6. MIT Facts 2007: Mission and Origins. [dostęp 2006-07-18].
  7. Warren K. Lewis, Ronald H. Rornett, C. Richard Soderberg, Julius A. Stratton, John R. Loofbourow, et al: Report of the Committee on Educational Survey (Lewis Report). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, December 1949, s. p. 8. [dostęp 2006-10-04].
  8. Barton's philosophy for the institute was for "the teaching, not of the manipulations and minute details of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of all the scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them;" The Founding of MIT, cites (1) Letter, William Barton Rogers to Henry Darwin Rogers, March 13, 1846, William Barton Rogers Papers (MC 1), Institute Archives and Special Collections, MIT Libraries.
  9. Andrews, Elizabeth, Nora Murphy, and Tom Rosko(2004), William Barton Rogers: MIT's Visionary Founder (Charter, laboratory instruction, first classes in Mercantile building)
  10. The history montage at the Kendall/MIT T-stop
  11. National Selection Committee Ballot - Power of the NSC. [dostęp 2005].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "accessmonthday".
  12. Błąd w składni szablonu {{Cytuj stronę}}. Brak podanego adresu cytowanej strony (parametr url=|).{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "strona" oraz "wydawca". brakuje 'url'
    Maclaurin quoted: "in future Harvard agrees to carry out all its work in engineering and mining in the buildings of Technology under the executive control of the president of Technology, and, what is of the first importance, to commit all instruction and the laying down of all courses to the faculty of Technology, after that faculty has been enlarged and strengthened by the addition to its existing members of men of eminence from Harvard's Graduate School of Applied Science."
  13. Błąd w składni szablonu {{Cytuj stronę}}. Brak podanego adresu cytowanej strony (parametr url=|).{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "strona" oraz "wydawca". brakuje 'url'
  14. Canceled by a 1917 State Judicial Court decision.Harvard Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
  15. The "New Tech". 2006-09-08. [dostęp 2006-12-01].
  16. Report of the Committee on Educational Survey, page 13
  17. Stuart Leslie: The Cold War and American Science: The Military-Industrial-Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford. Columbia University Press, 2004-04-15. ​ISBN 0-231-07959-1​.
  18. Gregg Zachary: Endless Frontier: Vannevar Bush, Engineer of the American Century. Free Press, 1997-09-03. ​ISBN 0-684-82821-9​.
  19. Report of the Committee on Educational Survey, page 13
  20. More Emphasis on Science Vitally Needed to Educate Man for A Confused Civilization. 1958-02-14. [dostęp 2006-11-05].
  21. Iron Birds Caged in Building 7 Lobby: Missiles on Display Here. 1958-02-25. [dostęp 2006-11-05].
  22. "At a critical time in the late 1960s, Johnson stood up to the forces of campus rebellion at MIT. Many university presidents were destroyed by the troubles. Only Edward Levi, University of Chicago president, had comparable success guiding his institution to a position of greater strength and unity after the turmoil." David Warsh: A tribute to MIT's Howard Johnson. June 1, 1999. [dostęp 2007-04-04].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca".
  23. "In 1959, 158 women were enrolled at MIT." O. Robert Simha: MIT Campus Planning 1960-2000. 2001. [dostęp 2007-04-09].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca" oraz "strona".
  24. "When Drake arrived on campus 50 years ago, she was one of only 16 women in a class of 1,000."Lauren Clark: MIT Panel "Alumnae Through the Ages" Reflects on Changes for Women. [dostęp 2007-04-09].
  25. EECS Women Undergraduate Enrollment Committee: Chapter 1: Male/Female enrollment patterns in EECS at MIT and other schools. W: Women Undergraduate Enrollment in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT [on-line]. January 3 1995. [dostęp 2006-12-08].
  26. Chemical Heritage Foundation: Ellen Swallow Richards. W: Chemical Achievers, The Human Face of Chemical Sciences [on-line]. 2005. [dostęp 2006-11-04].
  27. In 1995, faculty member Nancy Hopkins accused MIT of bias against herself and several of her female colleagues. Hopkins, rather than a third party, investigated her own charges and concluded in 1999 concluded there was "subtle yet pervasive" bias against women at MIT, although no instance of intentional discrimination was found. Despite the study's sealed evidence and its lack of peer review, Vest approved "targeted actions" like the creation of 11 committees and 20% salary increases for women faculty. Judith Kleinfeld: MIT Tarnishes Its Reputation with Gender Junk Science. [dostęp 2007-04-10].
  28. Kathryn Jean Lopez: Feminist Mythology. April 10, 2001. [dostęp 2007-04-10].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca".
  29. MIT News Office: Charles Vest to step down from MIT presidency, Has been staunch national advocate for education and research. 2003-12-05. [dostęp 2006-06-28].
    "Over the past decade, the number of women undergraduates increased from 34 percent to 42 percent. Women now outnumber men in 10 undergraduate majors at MIT. The proportion of women graduate students has increased from 20 percent to 29 percent."

    "During Vest's presidency, MIT appointed its first woman department head in the School of Science, its first two minority department heads in the School of Engineering, and its first five women vice presidents."

  30. Professor Sues M.I.T. Over Refusal of Tenure. 1986-09-10. [dostęp 2006-10-03].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca".
  31. MIT corporate ties raise concern. 1990. [dostęp 2007-03-04].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca".
  32. Settlement allows cooperation on awarding financial-aid. 1994. [dostęp 2007-03-03].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca".
  33. MIT's Inaction Blamed for Contributing to Death of a Freshman. 1998-10-06. [dostęp 2006-10-07].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca".
  34. Dana Levine: Institute Will Pay Kruegers $6M for Role in Death. 2000-09-15. [dostęp 2006-10-04].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca".
  35. "Students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have been far more likely to [commit suicide] over the past decade compared to those at 11 other universities with elite science and engineering programs—38 percent more often than the next school, Harvard, and four times more than campuses with the lowest rate.

    "Madelyn Gould, a professor of psychiatry at Columbia University, said these patterns showed a 'suicide contagion' at MIT - victim begetting victim in the same small community. 'It appears there's a culture at MIT that has reinforced suicide and jumping as a means of escaping,' said Gould, an authority on suicide and contagion. 'Somehow they've normalized that jumping out a window is OK.'" Błąd w składni szablonu {{Cytuj stronę}}. Brak podanego adresu cytowanej strony (parametr url=|).{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca". brakuje 'url'

  36. "There is considerable debate as to whether a school's selectivity increases the likelihood of student suicide. The latest round of the debate is being played out in Cambridge, Mass., where Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is in the midst of a $27 million wrongful death suit over the death of a troubled sophomore in April 2000. Media reports have painted a portrait of an institution in the midst of a suicide epidemic. In fact, MIT's suicide rate is below the national average if one adjusts figures for the school's overwhelmingly male student body (American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, 2002)" Elizabeth Fried Ellen, LICSW: Prevention on Campus. 2002. [dostęp 2006-06-26].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca".
  37. MIT Mental Health Task Force Fact Sheet. 2001-11-14. [dostęp 2006-06-25].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca".
  38. Clay endorses Mental Health Task Force Recommendations. 2001-11-28. [dostęp 2006-06-25].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca".
  39. Who Was Responsible for Elizabeth Shin?. 2002-04-28. [dostęp 2006-10-07].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca".
  40. MIT dean of admissions resigns for falsifying resume. 2007-04-26. [dostęp 2007-04-26].
  41. Dean of admissions resigns. April 26, 2007. [dostęp 2007-04-26].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca".
  42. James R. Killian: The Inaugural Address. 1949-04-02. [dostęp 2006-06-02].
  43. The HST program does offer an MD-PhD program with the Harvard Medical School.
  44. MIT Corporation. [dostęp 2007-03-18].
  45. A Brief History and Workings of the Corporation. [dostęp 2006-11-02].
  46. MIT Investment Management Company. [dostęp 2007-01-08].
  47. Rafael L. Bras: Reports to the President, Report of the Chair of the Faculty. 2004-2005. [dostęp 2006-12-01].
  48. MIT Education. [dostęp 2006-12-03].
  49. Course numbers are traditionally presented in Roman numerals, e.g. Course XVIII for mathematics. Starting in 2002, the Bulletin (MIT's course catalog) started to use Arabic numerals. Usage outside of the Bulletin varies, both Roman and Arabic numerals being used). This section follows the Bulletin's usage.
  50. ABC News: Loose Nukes: A Special Report. [dostęp 2007-04-14].
  51. MIT News Office: MIT Assures Community of Research Reactor Safety. 2005-10-13. [dostęp 2006-10-05].
  52. MIT maps wireless users across campus. 2005-11-04. [dostęp 2007-03-03].
  53. MIT Architecture: Welcome. [dostęp 2007-04-04].
  54. a b Starchitecture on Campus. 2004-02-22. [dostęp 2006-10-24].
  55. Szablon:Harvard reference
  56. "Boston isn’t yet fully embracing contemporary architecture... it’s far riskier to put an unapologetically modern building in the historic Back Bay, not far from the neighborhood’s Victorian town houses and Gothic Revival columns."Rachel Strutt: Stained Glass?. February 11, 2007. [dostęp 2007-04-04].
  57. " 2007 361 Best College Rankings: Quality of Life: Campus Is Tiny, Unsightly, or Both. 2006. [dostęp 2006-10-09].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca".
  58. MIT Facts 2007: Enrollments 2006-2007. [dostęp 2007-02-14].
  59. MIT Facts 2007: International Students and Scholars. [dostęp 2007-02-14].
  60. See Demographics of the United States for references.
  61. MIT Facts 2007: Admission to MIT. [dostęp 2007-02-14].
  62. MIT Applied and Admitted Statistics. [dostęp 2007-04-02].
  63. MIT Facts 2007: Graduate Education. [dostęp 2007-02-14].
  64. MIT Facts 2007: Tuition and Financial Aid.
  65. Proposed Revisions to GIRs Are Unveiled. [dostęp 2006].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "accessmonthday".
  66. Leadership and Organizational Culture: New Perspectives on Administrative Theory and Practice. University of Illinois Press, 1986. ​ISBN 0-252-01347-6​.{{Cytuj książkę}} Nieznane pola: "editors". p. 59: "In the sixties... Students spoke of their undergraduate experiences as 'drinking from a fire hose.'"
  67. Common Data Set, Enrollment and Persistence. [dostęp 2006-10-06].
  68. Concourse Program at MIT. [dostęp 2007-02-01].
  69. Terrascope home page. [dostęp 2007-01-08].
  70. "MIT for a long time... stood virtually alone as a university that embraced rather than shunned industry."
    A Survey of New England: A Concentration of Talent. „The Economist”, August 8, 1987. 
  71. "The war made necessary the formation of new working coalitions... between these technologists and government officials. These changes were especially noteworthy at MIT."
    An Environment for Entrepreneurs. W: Edward B. Roberts: MIT: Shaping the Future. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991. ISBN 0262631451.
  72. MIT ILP - About the ILP. [dostęp 2007-03-17].
  73. Nearly half of all US Presidential science advisors have had ties to the Institute. May 2, 2001. [dostęp 2007-03-18].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca".
  74. MIT Washington Office. [dostęp 2007-03-18].
  75. Harvard-MIT Data Center. [dostęp 2007-01-08].
  76. MIT's Building 7 and Harvard's Johnston Gate, the traditional entrances to each school, are 1.72 miles apart along Massachusetts Avenue.
  77. Times Higher Education Supplement World Rankings 2005. [dostęp 2006-10-04]. Cytat: The US has the world’s top two universities by our reckoning — Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, neighbours on the Charles River.
  78. a b MIT Facts 2007: Educational Partnerships. [dostęp 2007-02-14].
  79. MIT-Zaragoza International Logistics Program. [dostęp 2007-03-17].zły link w 'url'
  80. MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives. [dostęp 2007-03-17].
  81. MIT Edgerton Center. [dostęp 2007-03-17].
  82. MIT Public Service Center. [dostęp 2007-03-18].
  83. MIT Outreach Database. [dostęp 2006-10-07].
  84. Minority Introduction to Engineering and Science Program
  85. Research Science Institute
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  88. Wikipedia's summaries: Top universities overall (worldwide); Top universities worldwide for technology; Top universities worldwide for science
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  92. USNWR's Best Graduate Programs in Engineering. [dostęp 2006-12-06].
  93. MIT grad programs rank highly. [dostęp 2006].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "accessday".
  94. U.S. News ranks Harvard Biz School No. 1, MIT's Sloan No. 4. [dostęp 2006].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "accessday".
  95. MIT Facts 2007: Faculty and Staff. [dostęp 2007-02-14].
  96. 61 MIT-related Nobel Prize winners include faculty, researchers, alumni and staff.
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  99. TLO Statistics for Fiscal Year 2006. [dostęp 2006-10-07].
  100. MIT Research and Teaching Firsts. [dostęp 2006-10-06].
  101. Energy Research Council homepage. [dostęp 2006-10-24].
  102. "We are a meritocracy. We judge each other by our ideas, our creativity and our accomplishments, not by who our families are." Marilee Jones, former Dean of Admissions: MIT freshman application & financial aid information. [dostęp 2007-01-02].
  103. "Mathematical approaches to economics have at times been criticized as lacking in practical value. Yet the MIT Economics Department has trained many economists who have played leading roles in government and in the private sector, including the current heads of four central banks: those of Chile, Israel, Italy, and, I might add, the United States."Ben S. Bernanke: 2006 Commencement Speech at MIT. 2006-06-09. [dostęp 2007-01-02].
  104. No honorary degrees is an MIT tradition going back to ... Thomas Jefferson. 2001-06-08. [dostęp 2006-05-07].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "publishyear", "wydawca" oraz "format".
    "MIT's founder, William Barton Rogers, regarded the practice of giving honorary degrees as 'literary almsgiving ... of spurious merit and noisy popularity....' Rogers was a geologist from the University of Virginia who believed in Thomas Jefferson's policy barring honorary degrees at the university, which was founded in 1819.... When Charles M. Vest... was offered the job of president of MIT in 1990, he met with Wiesner, who also had come to MIT from the University of Michigan. Wiesner, in ten words of concise persuasion, cited three worries of university presidents that Vest would not have at MIT—'No big time athletics. No medical school. No honorary degrees.'"
  105. Daniel C. Stevenson: Rushdie Stuns Audience 26-100. 1993-11-30. s. 1.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "tom", "wydawca" oraz "numer".
  106. While some statistics suggest that MIT pre-medical or pre-law students have lower average GPAs than graduates from peer schools with the same standardized board scores, a Princeton University study cites MIT granting as many "A"s as Ivy League-level colleges Grade Deflation. August 2004. [dostęp 2007-01-02].
  107. M.J. Bauer: IHTFP. [dostęp 2005].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "accessmonthday".
  108. MIT Association of Student Activities. [dostęp 2006-11-01].
  109. Howe & Ser Moving Co.. [dostęp 2007-04-04].
  110. MIT Facts 2007: Athletics and Recreation. [dostęp 2007-02-14].
  111. Varisty Sports fact sheets. [dostęp 2007-01-06].
  112. Fred Shapiro: MIT's World Champions. 1972-04-25. s. 7. [dostęp 2006-10-04].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "wydawca" oraz "tom".
  113. MIT Facts 2007: Athletics and Recreations. [dostęp 2007-02-14].
  114. MIT Facts 2007: Athletics and Recreation. [dostęp 2007-02-14].
  115. MIT Housing Office: MIT Undergraduate Housing FAQ:19 Frequently Asked Questions. 2005-08-25. [dostęp 2006-10-04].
  116. Graduate Housing Guide - Quick Facts.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "accessmdate".
  117. Consultation Report to Dean Rogers. 2003-05-23. [dostęp 2006-12-01].
  118. MIT Facts 2007: Housing. [dostęp 2007-02-14].
  119. MIT Office of Institutional Research: Awards and Honors. [dostęp 2006-11-05].
  120. Although not alumni, former Provost Robert A. Brown is President of Boston University, former Provost Mark Wrighton is Chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis and former Professor David Baltimore was President of Caltech.
  121. Notable Alumni. [dostęp 2006-11-04].

Further reading | edytuj kod

See the bibliography maintained by MIT's Institute Archives & Special Collections
  • Stuart W. Leslie: The Cold War and American Science: The Military-Industrial-Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford. Columbia University Press, 1994. ​ISBN 0-231-07959-1​.
  • Mark Jarzombek: Designing MIT: Bosworth's New Tech. Northeastern University Press, 2003. ​ISBN 1-55553-619-0​.{{Cytuj książkę}} Nieznane pola: "link autor".

External links | edytuj kod

Publications | edytuj kod

  • The Tech, student newspaper, the world's first newspaper on the web
  • Tech Talk, MIT's official newspaper
  • Technology Review, mass market technology and alumni magazine
  • MIT Press, university press & publisher
  • MIT World video streams of public lectures and symposia

Maps | edytuj kod

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