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ANGIELSKI | edytuj kod w encyklopedii


Aviation refers to activities involving man-made flying devices (aircraft), including the people, organizations, and regulatory bodies involved with them.

Lotnictwo odnosi się do czynności związanych z maszynami latającymi stworzonymi przez człowieka, ludzi w to zaangażowanych oraz powiązane z lotnictwem organizacje i organy nadzorujące. (Najlepsze co udało mi się stworzyć...)

History | edytuj kod

 Osobny artykuł: Aviation history.

Wiele kultur używało w przeszłości obiektów latających, począwszy od prymitywnych kamieni, poprzez dzidy, Bumerangi czy Latawce. W mitologii znana jest historia latającego Ikara. Bardziej prawdopodobne wydają się być historie krótkich lotów z wielkimi latawcami w Chinach (jak Yuan Huangtou) i ....................................................................

Many cultures have built devices that travel through the air, from the earliest projectiles such as stones and spears, to more sophisticated buoyant or aerodynamic devices such as the mechanical pigeon of Archytas in Ancient Greece[1][2], the boomerang in Australia, the hot air Kongming lantern, and kites. There are early legends of human flight such as the story of Icarus, and later, more credible claims of short-distance human flights including a kite flight by Yuan Huangtou in China, and the parachute flight and controlled glider flight of Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman).

Współczesna epoka awiacji rozpoczęła się z pierwszym lotem balonowym, maszynie lżejszej od powietrza. Dokonali tego bracia Montgolfier 21 Listopada 1783 roku w balonie zaprojektowanym przez ich samych.

The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21 1783, in a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers.

The practicality of balloons was limited because they could only travel downwind. It was immediately recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required. Jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785. Subsequent early dirigible developments included machine-powered propulsion (Henri Giffard, 1852), rigid frames (David Schwarz, 1896), and improved speed and maneuverability (Alberto Santos-Dumont, 1901).

Praktyczność balonów była ograniczona, ponieważ mogły one podróżować tylko z wiatrem. Pojawiła się więc potrzeba budowy balonu sterowalnego. Jean-Pierre Blanchard jako pierwszy człowiek przeleciał kanał La Manche sterowcem napędzanym siłą ludzkich mięśni w 1785 roku. ......................................................

First flight by the Wright Brothers, December 17, 1903 Hindenburg at Lakehurst Naval Air Station, 1936

While there are many competing claims for the earliest powered, heavier-than-air flight, the most widely-accepted date is December 17 1903 by the Wright brothers, though their 1903 aircraft was impractical to fly for more than a short distance because of control problems. The widespread adoption of ailerons made aircraft much easier to manage, and only a decade later, at the start of World War I, heavier-than-air powered aircraft had become practical for reconnaissance, artillery spotting, and even attacks against ground positions.

Do dziś wielu ludzi sprzecza się, kiedy po raz pierwszy doszło do pierwszego lotu statku cięższego od powietrza. Najpowszechniej akceptowaną datą jest 17 Grudnia 1903 roku, gdy Orville Wright dokonali lotu o długości 120 stóp (39 metrów), trwającego 12 sekund. Mimo to, już podczas czwartego lotu tego samego dnia Wilbur Wright przeleciał dystans 852 stóp (260 metrów)

Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew larger and more reliable. In contrast to small non-rigid blimps, giant rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances. The best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company.

The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin. It flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of the that period, which had a range of only a few hundred miles, was diminishing as airplane design advanced. The "Golden Age" of the airships ended on June 6, 1937 when the Hindenburg caught fire killing 36 people. Although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time.

Great progress was made in the field of aviation during the 1920s and 1930s, such as Charles Lindbergh's transatlantic flight in 1927, and Charles Kingsford Smith's transpacific flight the following year. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3 which became the first airliner that was profitable carrying passengers exclusively, starting the modern era of passenger airline service. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, and there were numerous qualified pilots available. The war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets.

NASA's Helios researches solar powered flight.

After WWII, especially in North America, there was a boom in general aviation, both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from military service and many inexpensive war-surplus transport and training aircraft became available. Manufacturers such as Cessna, Piper, and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle class market.

By the 1950s, the development of civil jets grew, beginning with the de Havilland Comet, though the first widely-used passenger jet was the Boeing 707, because it was much more economical than other planes at the time. At the same time, turboprop propulsion began to appear for smaller commuter planes, making it possible to serve small-volume routes in a much wider range of weather conditions.

Yuri Gagarin was the first human to travel to space on April 12, 1961, while Neil Armstrong was the first to set foot on the moon on July 21, 1969.

Since the 1960s, composite airframes and quieter, more efficient engines have become available, and the Concorde provided supersonic passenger service for a time, but the most important lasting innovations have taken place in instrumentation and control. The arrival of solid-state electronics, the Global Positioning System, satellite communications, and increasingly small and powerful computers and LED displays, have dramatically changed the cockpits of airliners and, increasingly, of smaller aircraft as well. Pilots can navigate much more accurately and view terrain, obstructions, and other nearby aircraft on a map or through synthetic vision, even at night or in low visibility.

On June 21 2004, SpaceShipOne became the first privately funded aircraft to make a spaceflight, opening the possibility of an aviation market outside the earth's atmosphere. Meanwhile, flying prototypes of aircraft powered by alternative fuels, such as ethanol, electricity, and even solar energy, are becoming more common and may soon enter the mainstream, at least for light aircraft.

Civil aviation | edytuj kod

 Osobny artykuł: Civil aviation.

Civil aviation includes all non-military flying, both general aviation and scheduled air transport.

Air transport | edytuj kod

 Osobny artykuł: Airline. Swiss International Air Lines Airbus A330

There are five major manufacturers of civil transport aircraft (in alphabetical order):

Boeing, Airbus, and Tupolev concentrate on wide-body and narrow-body jet airliners, while Bombardier and Embraer concentrate on regional airliners. Large networks of specialized parts suppliers from around the world support these manufacturers, who sometimes provide only the initial design and final assembly in their own plants. The Chinese ACAC consortium will also soon enter the civil transport market with its ACAC ARJ21 regional jet.[3]

Until the 1970s, most major airlines were flag carriers, sponsored by their governments and heavily protected from competition. Since then, open skies agreements have resulted in increased competition and choice for consumers, coupled with falling prices for airlines. The combination of high fuel prices, low fares, high salaries, and crises such as the September 11, 2001 attacks and the SARS epidemic have driven many older airlines to government-bailouts, bankruptcy or mergers. At the same time, low-cost carriers such as Ryanair and Southwest have flourished.

General aviation | edytuj kod

 Osobny artykuł: General aviation. 1947 Cessna 120 A weight-shift ultralight aircraft, the Air Creation Tanarg

General aviation includes all non-scheduled civil flying, both private and commercial. General aviation may include business flights, air charter, private aviation, flight training, ballooning, parachuting, gliding, hang gliding, aerial photography, foot-launched powered hang gliders, air ambulance, crop dusting, charter flights, traffic reporting, police air patrols and forest fire fighting.

Each country regulates aviation differently, but general aviation usually falls under different regulations depending on whether it is private or commercial and on the type of equipment involved.

Many small aircraft manufacturers, including Cessna, Piper, Diamond, Mooney, Cirrus Design, Raytheon and others serve the general aviation market, with a focus on private aviation and flight training.

The most important recent developments for small aircraft (which form the bulk of the GA fleet) have been the introduction of advanced avionics (including GPS) that were formerly found only in large airliners, and the introduction of composite materials to make small aircraft lighter and faster. Ultralight and homebuilt aircraft have also become increasingly popular for recreational use, since in most countries that allow private aviation, they are much less expensive and less heavily regulated than certified aircraft.

Military aviation | edytuj kod

 Osobny artykuł: Aerial warfare.

Simple balloons were used as surveillance aircraft as early as the 18th century. Over the years, military aircraft have been built to meet ever increasing capability requirements. Manufacturers of military aircraft compete for contracts to supply their government's arsenal. Aircraft are selected based on factors like cost, performance, and the speed of production.

The Lockheed SR-71 remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance.

Types of military aircraft | edytuj kod

Air Traffic Control (ATC) | edytuj kod

 Osobny artykuł: Air traffic control. Air traffic control towers at Schiphol Airport, the Netherlands

Air traffic control (ATC) involves communication with aircraft to help maintain separation — that is, they ensure that aircraft are sufficiently far enough apart horizontally or vertically for no risk of collision. Controllers may co-ordinate position reports provided by pilots, or in high traffic areas (such as the United States) they may use RADAR to see aircraft positions.

There are generally four different types of ATC:

  • centre controllers, who control aircraft en route between airports
  • control towers (including tower, ground control, clearance delivery, and other services), which control aircraft within a small distance (typically 10-15 km horizontal, and 1,000 m vertical) of an airport.
  • oceanic controllers, who control aircraft over international waters between continents, generally without radar service.
  • terminal controllers, who control aircraft in a wider area (typically 50-80 km) around busy airports.

ATC is especially important for aircraft flying under Instrument flight rules (IFR), where they may be in weather conditions that do not allow the pilots to see other aircraft. However, in very high-traffic areas, especially near major airports, aircraft flying under Visual flight rules (VFR) are also required to follow instructions from ATC.

In addition to separation from other aircraft, ATC may provide weather advisories, terrain separation, navigation assistance, and other services to pilots, depending on their workload.

ATC do not control all flights. The majority of VFR flights in North America are not required to talk to ATC (unless they are passing through a busy terminal area or using a major airport), and in many areas, such as northern Canada, ATC services are not available even for IFR flights at lower altitudes.

Environmental impact | edytuj kod

 Osobny artykuł: Aviation and the environment.

Like all activities involving combustion, operating powered aircraft (from airliners to hot air balloons) releases greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), soot, and other pollutants into the atmosphere. In addition, there are environmental impacts specific to aviation:

Water vapour contrails left by high-altitude jet airliners. These may contribute to cirrus cloud formation.
  • Aircraft operating at high altitudes near the tropopause (mainly large jet airliners) emit aerosols and leave contrails, both of which can increase cirrus cloud formation — cloud cover may have increased by up to 0.2% since the birth of aviation.[4]
  • Aircraft operating at high altitudes near the tropopause can also release chemicals that interact with greenhouse gases at those altitudes, particularly nitrogen compounds, which interact with ozone, increasing ozone concentrations.[5][6]
  • Most light piston aircraft burn avgas, which contains tetra-ethyl lead (TEL), a highly-toxic substance that can cause soil contamination at airports. Some lower-compression piston engines can operate on unleaded mogas, and turbine engines and diesel engines — neither of which requires lead — are appearing on some newer light aircraft.

Notes | edytuj kod

  1. Archytas of Tarentum, Technology Museum of Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece
  2. Automata history [1]
  3. China's Aircraft Industry Gets Off the Ground - TIME
  4. Aviation and the Global Atmosphere (IPCC)
  5. X. Lin, Trainer, M. and Liu, S.C.,. On the nonlinearity of the tropospheric ozone production.. „Journal of Geophysical Research”, s. 15879–15888, 1988. DOI: 10.1029/JD093iD12p15879. {{Cytuj pismo}} Nieznane pola: "tom".
  6. V. Grewe, D. Brunner, M. Dameris, J. L. Grenfell, R. Hein, D. Shindell, J. Staehelin. Origin and variability of upper tropospheric nitrogen oxides and ozone at northern mid-latitudes. „Atmospheric Environment”. 20, s. 3421–3433, July 2001. DOI: 10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00134-0. [dostęp 2007-11-20]. {{Cytuj pismo}} Nieznane pola: "tom".

See also | edytuj kod

Szablon:Wikiversity3 Szablon:Wiktionarypar

Szablon:Aviation lists

POLSKI | edytuj kod w encyklopedii

Lotnictwo – ogół zagadnień związanych z wszelkiego rodzaju statkami powietrznymi, pojazdami zdolnymi do samodzielnego lotu w powietrzu. Lotnictwo na ogół nie obejmuje zagadnień związanych z lotami w kosmos, którymi zajmuje się astronautyka, jednak istnieją lub zapronowanymi zostały systemy, gdzie lot orbitalny lub suborbitalny, czy nawet opuszczenie strefy grawitacji Ziemi lotem międzyplanetarnym, jest do wykonania pojazdem kosmicznym startującym ze specjalnie przystosowanego samolotu wzniesionego na wysoki pułap lotu, gdzie energetyczny koszt rozpoczęcia lotu kosmicznego, i co za tym idzie, potrzebna masa pojazdu z potrzebnym paliwem jest znacznie zmniejszona w porównaniu ze startem za pomocą wielkej rakiety odpalonej z powierzchni.

W węższym znaczeniu lotnictwo to nazwa gałęzi gospdarki, w tym przemysłu (np. technologie wytwarzania materiałów, systemów czy oprogramowania stosowanego) , architektury obiektów przemysłowych (np. lotniska i wielkie kompleksy portów lotniczych), transportu (ruch lotniczy, w tym pasażerski oraz lotnictwo ogólne) , handlu (np. dostawy dóbr i usługi pocztowo-kurierskie) oraz usług społecznych (np. samoloty-kliniki okulistyczne) z użyciem statków powietrznych (głównie samolotów).

W ujęciu wojskowym lotnictwo to element powietrznych sił zbrojnych, zwany wojskami lotniczymi, którego podstawową bronią są różnego rodzaju statki powietrzne.

Dużym zagrożeniem dla wielu klas statków powietrznych są kolizje z ptakami. Wessanie zwierzęta do turbiny silnika odrzutowego przy zderzeniu o wielkiej energii spowoduje katastrofalną awarię tegoż przez połamanie jego konstrukcji, nawet eksplozję fragmentów, z możliwą utratą nośności i przeciągnięciem, i co za tym idzie gwałtownym przepadnięciem skutkującym w zderzeniu z ziemią. Natomiast samo udeżenie dużego ptaka w powierzchnie nośne czy kadłub potrafi poważnie uszkodzić lecący o dużej prędkości samolot, nawet do punktu katastrofalnego uniemożliwienia dalszego lotu[1]. Z tego powodu, często trenowane są i utrzymywane na lotniskach odstraszające ptaki drapieżne[2].

Przemysł | edytuj kod

Największe koncerny produkcyjne samolotów cywilnych to:

Natomiast największe koncerny produkcyjne samolotów wojskowych to:

Galeria statków powietrznych | edytuj kod

Zobacz też | edytuj kod

Przypisy | edytuj kod

  1. Pelikan zestrzelił australijski myśliwiec: Naprawa będzie kosztować tysiące dolarów. W: [on-line]. Axel Springer Polska, 2008-04-19 15:52. [dostęp 2008-12-04].
  2. Kacper Brzóska, fotograf: Ochrona środowiska. Portu Lotniczy Bydgoszcz S.A., 2006. [dostęp 2008-12-04].

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