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Falafel to kotleciki smażone na głębokim oleju zrobione z przyprawionej ciecierzycy, zielonej fasoli lub mieszanki obu produktów. Falafel to tradycjonalne danie arabskie, zazwyczaj podawane w kieszonce z pity lub zawinięte w chlebek lafa. Falafelowe kulki pokrywa się surówkami, marynowanymi warzywami, ostrym sosem i skrapia sosami na bazie sezamu. Danie może być osobną przekąską lub częścią meze. Według ogólnie przyjętej wersji falafel po raz pierwszy przyrządzono w Egipcie jednak jest potrawą charakterystyczną dla całego Bliskiego Wschodu. Egipski lud Koptów twierdzi, że przyrządził tę potrawę po raz pierwszy jako zastępstwo dla mięsa w okresie wielkiego postu. Klopsiki te są obecnie znane na całym świecie jako substytut mięsa i jako fast food.

Etymologia

Słowo Falafel może odnosić się do samych kulek lub do wypełnionych nimi kanapek. Niektóre źródła przypisują pochodzenie tej nazwy arabskiemu słowu falāfil (فلافل), będącemu liczbą mnogą słowa filfil (فلفل),oznaczającego 'pieprz' a wywodzącemu się ze słowa pippali oznaczającego w Sanskrycie "pieprz długi". Ostatnio zaproponowane zostało również pochodzenie od koptyjskiego słowa Pha la Phel oznaczającego "zrobiony z dużej ilości fasoli". Słowa tego jednak używa się głównie w Lewancie a nie w Egipcie (gdzie falafel określa się jako ta'amiya (Egyptian Arabic: طعمية)) zwłaszcza, że etymologicznie pochodzenie Lewantyńskie jest możliwe. Lewantyńskie kolokwialne arabskie falāfil jest gramatycznie rzeczownikiem zbiorowym policzalnym jedynie ze słowem "ziarno, kawałek" (tak jak w Polskim chleb jest policzalny jedynie ze słowami bochenek czy kromka). Może być to pozostałością po liczbie mnogiej we wcześniejszym słowie filfal, z aramejskiego pilpāl, "mała okrągła rzecz, ziarnko pieprzu" pochodzącego od palpēl,"być okrągłym, obłym". Zatem, z pochodzenia falafel oznaczałby "wałki, małe kulki". Biorąc pod uwagę słownictwo, gramatykę i fonologię kolokwialny Lewantyński Arabski ukazuje duże wpływy Aramejskiego


, Szablon:About Szablon:Infobox prepared food

Falafel (Szablon:IPAc-en; (arab.) فلافل, Szablon:IPA-ar) is a deep-fried ball or patty made from ground chickpeas, fava beans, or both. Falafel is a traditional Arab food, usually served in a pita, which acts as a pocket, or wrapped in a flatbread known as lafa. The falafel balls are topped with salads, pickled vegetables, hot sauce, and drizzled with tahini-based sauces. Falafel balls may also be eaten alone as a snack or served as part of a meze.

Generally accepted to have first been made in Egypt, falafel has become a dish eaten throughout the Middle East. The Copts of Egypt claim to have first made the dish as a replacement for meat during Lent. The fritters are now found around the world as a replacement for meat and as a form of street food.

Spis treści

Etymology | edytuj kod

The word falafel can refer to the fritters themselves or to sandwiches filled with them.[1] Some sources trace the name to the Arabic word Szablon:Transl ((arab. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: فلافل. Sprawdź listę kodów.)), the plural of Szablon:Transl ((arab. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: فلفل. Sprawdź listę kodów.)), meaning "pepper"—probably from the Sanskrit word Szablon:Transl ((sanskryt • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: पिप्पली. Sprawdź listę kodów.)), meaning "long pepper".[2] A Coptic origin has recently been proposed from Pha La Phel "Φα Λα Φελ" 'of many beans'.[3] However, the locus of the word's use is in the Levant rather than Egypt (where falafel are generally known as ta'amiya ((egipski arabski) طعمية), and in fact an etymology from internal Levantine sources is possible. Levantine colloquial Arabic falāfil is grammatically a mass noun that must be counted with the word حبة "grain, piece" (as the English word bread must be counted with loaf or slice). It may represent a frozen plural of an earlier unattested *filfal, from Aramaic pilpāl, "small round thing, peppercorn," derived from palpēl, "to be round, roll".[4] Thus in origin, falafel would be "rollers, little balls." It its vocabulary, grammar, and phonology, the colloquial Arabic of the Levant reflects the deep influence of Aramaic, the language from which the population of the Levant shifted after the Muslim conquest of Syria in 634-638. In this way, an Aramaic origin for the colloquial term is not problematic, although the late date of attestation of the word in Arabic renders it somewhat tentative--a problem from which the proposed Coptic etymology, also invoking an unattested Coptic phrase, suffers from in equal measure. (In connection with the proposed origin of falafel in Lenten practices of the Copts, it should be remembered that since the days of the Apostles, the Levant to this day has a very large Aramaic-speaking, and later Arabic-speaking, Christian population.) The Arabic word falāfil has been borrowed into many other languages and spread around the rest of the world as the general name for this food. In English, it is first attested in 1941.[5][6]

Falafel is known as ta'amiya ((egipski arabski) طعمية Szablon:Transl, Szablon:IPA-ar) in Egypt, with the exception of Alexandria. The word is derived from a diminutive form of the Arabic word Szablon:Transl ((arab. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: طعام. Sprawdź listę kodów.), "food"); the particular form indicates "a unit" of the given root in this case Szablon:Transl ((arab. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: ط ع م. Sprawdź listę kodów.), having to do with taste and food), thus meaning "a little piece of food" or "small tasty thing".[7][8][9]

History | edytuj kod

The origin of falafel is unknown and controversial.[1] A common theory is that the dish originated in Egypt,[10] possibly eaten by Copts as a replacement for meat during Lent.[11][12] As Alexandria is a port city, it was possible to export the dish and name to other areas in the Middle East.[13] The dish later migrated northwards to the Levant, where chickpeas replaced the fava.[14][15] It has also been theorized to a lesser extent that falafel originated during Egypt's Pharaonic Period[16] or in the Indian subcontinent.[10][17]

Falafel sandwich

Middle East | edytuj kod

Falafel grew to become a common form of street food or fast food in the Middle East.[18] The croquettes are regularly eaten as part of meze. During Ramadan, falafel balls are sometimes eaten as part of the iftar, the meal that breaks the daily fast after sunset.[8] Falafel became so popular that McDonald’s now serves a "McFalafel" in some countries.[19] It is still popular with the Copts, who cook large volumes during religious holidays.[20] Debates over the origin of falafel have sometimes devolved into political discussions about the relationship between Arabs and Israelis.[14] In modern times, falafel has been considered a national dish of Egypt,[21] Palestine,[22][23] and of Izrael.[24][25] Resentment exists amongst many Palestinians for what they see as the appropriation of their dish by Israelis.[26] Additionally, the Lebanese Industrialists' Association has raised assertions of copyright infringement against Israel concerning falafel.[14][15][27]

Falafel plays an iconic role in Israeli cuisine.[26] While falafel is not a specifically Jewish dish, it was eaten by Mizrahi Jews in their countries of origin.[1][14] Later, it was adopted by early Jewish immigrants to Palestine.[26] Due to its being entirely plant based, it is considered parve under Jewish dietary laws and gained acceptance with Jews because it could be eaten with meat or dairy meals.[28]

North America | edytuj kod

In North America, prior to the 1970s, falafel was found only in Middle Eastern and Jewish neighborhoods and restaurants,[28][29][30][31] and also eaten by vegans, who used it as a meat analogue.[potrzebny przypis] Today, the dish is a common and popular street food in many cities throughout North America.[32][33][34]

Vegetarianism | edytuj kod

Falafel has become popular among vegetarians and with those in the vegan movement, where it is celebrated as an alternative to meat-laden street foods,[30] and is now sold in packaged mixes in health-food stores.[35] While traditionally thought of as being used to make veggie burgers,[36] its use has expanded as more and more people have adopted it as a source of protein.[37] A versatile ingredient, it has allowed for the reformulating of recipes for meatloaf, sloppy joes and spaghetti and meatballs into vegetarian dishes.[38][39]

Today, falafel is eaten all over the world.[40]

Preparation and variations | edytuj kod

A man using an aleb falafel while frying falafel

Falafel is made from fava beans or chickpeas, or a combination of the two. The use of chickpeas is predominant in most Middle Eastern countries.[41] The dish is usually made with chickpeas in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine and Syria.[20][42][43] This version is the most popular in the West.[20] The Egyptian variety uses fava beans.

When chickpeas are used, they are not cooked prior to use (cooking the chickpeas will cause the falafel to fall apart, requiring adding some flour to use as a binder). Instead they are soaked (sometimes with baking soda) overnight, then ground together with various ingredients such as parsley, scallions, and garlic.[20] Spices such as cumin and coriander are often added to the beans for added flavor.[44] Fava beans must be cooked, for medical reasons.[potrzebny przypis] The mixture is shaped into balls or patties. This can be done by hand or with a tool called an aleb falafel (falafel mould).[7][41] The mixture is usually deep fried, or it can be oven baked.

When not served alone, falafel is often served with unleavened bread[45] when it is wrapped within lafa or stuffed in a hollow pita.[46] Tomatoes, lettuce, cucumbers, and other garnishes can be added.[47] Falafel is commonly accompanied by tahini.[20]

Falafel is typically ball-shaped, but is sometimes made in other shapes, particularly donut-shaped. The inside of falafel may be green (from green herbs such as parsley or green onion), or tan.

Nutrition | edytuj kod

Szablon:Nutritional value

When made with chickpeas, falafel is high in protein, complex carbohydrates, and fiber.[48] Chickpeas are also low in fat and salt and contain no cholesterol. Key nutrients are calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, copper, manganese, Vitamin C, thiamine, pantothenic acid, Vitamin B, and folate. Phytochemicals include beta-carotene.[49] Falafel is high in soluble fiber, which has been shown to be effective in lowering blood cholesterol.[50][51]

Falafel can be baked to reduce the high fat content associated with frying.[30][47] Although baking alters the texture and flavor, it is a preparation technique often recommended to people suffering from health problems like diabetes.[52]

World records | edytuj kod

Largest falafel ball | edytuj kod

The current record, 74.75 kg (164.4 lb), was set on 28 July 2012 in Amman, Jordan.[53] The previous record was 23.94 kg (52.8 lb), 1.17 m in circumference and 0.3 m in height, set at the Santa Clarita Valley Jewish Food and Cultural Festival (USA), at the College of the Canyons in Valencia, California, USA, on 15 May 2011.[54]

Largest serving of falafel | edytuj kod

The record, 5,173 kg (11,404 lb 8 oz), was set by Chef Ramzi Choueiri and the students of Al-Kafaat University (Lebanon) in Beirut on 9 May 2010.[55]

References | edytuj kod

  1. a b c Carlo Petrini: Slow food : collected thoughts on taste, tradition, and the honest pleasures of food. Chelsea Green Publishing, 2001, s. 55. ISBN 978-1-931498-01-2. [dostęp 2011-02-06].{{Cytuj książkę}} Nieznane pola: "coauthors".
  2. Isaac E. Mozeson: The Word: The Dictionary That Reveals the Hebrew Source of English. SP Books, September 2002, s. 123. ISBN 978-1-56171-942-6. [dostęp 2011-10-12].
  3. Adeeb B. Makar: The Abbreviated Coptic-English Dictionary. Hayward, Calif.: St. Mina Monastery Press, 2001, s. 185. OCLC 609610948. Cytat: Φαλαφελ (fåˈlåfālˈ) m. Falafel. (lit. that which has lots of beans). See Φα, Λα, Φελ..
  4. American Heritage Dictionary, 5th edition (2011), s.v. falafel [1]
  5. Joseph Williams McPherson, The moulids of Egypt, 1941 Google Books
  6. Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition s.v. 'felafel' has a 1951 quote
  7. a b Alan Davidson: The Oxford companion to food. Wyd. 2. Oxford University Press, 2006, s. 287. ISBN 978-0-19-280681-9. [dostęp 2010-04-27].{{Cytuj książkę}} Nieznane pola: "coauthors".
  8. a b Salloum Habeeb: Falafel: healthy Middle Eastern hamburgers capture the West.. W: Vegetarian Journal [on-line]. 2007-04-01. [dostęp 2010-02-16].
  9. Anthony Ham: Africa. Footscray, Victoria: Lonely Planet, 2010, s. 199. ISBN 978-1-74104-988-6. [dostęp 2011-07-19].{{Cytuj książkę}} Nieznane pola: "display-authors".
  10. a b Shooky Galili: Falafel fact sheet. Ynet News, 2007-07-04. [dostęp 2011-02-06].
  11. Yael Raviv. Falafel: A National Icon. „Gastronomica”. 3 (3), s. 20–25, 2003-08-01. DOI: 10.1525/gfc.2003.3.3.20. JSTOR: 10
  12. Joel Denker: The World on a Plate: A Tour Through the History of America's Ethnic Cuisine. U of Nebraska Press, 2003, s. 41. ISBN 0-8133-4003-9.
  13. Aliza Green: Beans. Running Press, 2004, s. 76. ISBN 978-0-7624-1931-9.
  14. a b c d Kantor, Jodi: A History of the Mideast in the Humble Chickpea. The New York Times, 2002-07-10. [dostęp 2008-03-23].
  15. a b Hugh MacLeod: Lebanon turns up the heat as falafels fly in food fight. W: The Age [on-line]. 2008-10-12. [dostęp 2010-02-10].
  16. Hilary Wilson: Egyptian food and drink. Shire, 1988, s. 25. ISBN 978-0-85263-972-6.
  17. Anna Sussman: A Lebanese chef's vision: Make falafel, not war. W: The New York Times [on-line]. 2007-08-16. [dostęp 2010-03-06].
  18. Leigh Kelley: Dining with a Middle Eastern flair. W: Times-News [on-line]. 2010-01-28. [dostęp 2010-02-10].
  19. Jerry Allison: Fast food – Middle Eastern style. W: The News Journal [on-line]. 2009-01-06. [dostęp 2011-02-06].
  20. a b c d e Claudia Roden: The New Book of Middle Eastern Food. Random House, 2000, s. 62. ISBN 978-0-375-40506-8.
  21. Claudia Roden A Book of Middle Eastern Food (Penguin, 1970) pp. 60-61.
  22. Emma Williams: It's Easier to Reach Heaven than the End of the Street. Great Britain: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2006, s. 378. ISBN 978-0-7475-8559-6.
  23. Ghada Karmi: In Search of Fatima. U.S.A.: Verso New Left Books, 2002, s. 39. ISBN 1-85984-561-4.
  24. Alexandra Nocke: The place of the Mediterranean in modern Israeli identity. T. 11. Brill, 2009, s. 125, seria: Jewish identities in a changing world. ISBN 978-90-04-17324-8.{{Cytuj książkę}} Nieznane pola: "postscript".
  25. Alan Davidson, Oxford Companion to Food (Oxford University Press, 1999) p. 287
  26. a b c Jeffrey M. Pilcher: Food in World History. Routledge, 2006, s. 115. ISBN 978-0-415-31146-5.
  27. Roee Nahmias: Lebanon: Israel stole our falafel. Ynet News, 2008-06-10. [dostęp 2010-02-11].
  28. a b Thorne, Matt; Thorne, John: Mouth Wide Open: A Cook and His Appetite. Macmillan, 2007, s. 181–187. ISBN 978-0-86547-628-8. [dostęp 2011-02-23].
  29. Charles Perry, "Middle Eastern Influences on American Food" in Andrew F. Smith, ed., The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink, ​ISBN 0-19-530796-8​, p. 384
  30. a b c Grogan, Bryanna Clark: Falafel without fat. W: Vegetarian Times [on-line]. July 2003 edition. s. 20, 22. [dostęp 2011-02-23].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "issn".
  31. Curtis IV, Edward: Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History, Volume 1. Infobase Publishing, 2010, s. 207. ISBN 978-0-8160-7575-1. [dostęp 2011-02-23].
  32. Lenhard, Elizabeth. Cuisine of the Month. , s. 194, January 2006. [dostęp 2011-02-23]. {{Cytuj pismo}} Brakujące pola: czasopismo. Nieznane pola: "work".
  33. Schmidt, Arno; Fieldhouse, Paul: The World Religions Cookbook. 2007, s. 178. ISBN 978-0-313-33504-4. [dostęp 2011-02-23].{{Cytuj książkę}} Nieznane pola: "work".
  34. Westmoreland, Susan; Editors of Good Housekeeping: The Good Housekeeping Cookbook. Hearst Books, 2004. ISBN 978-1-58816-398-1. [dostęp 2011-02-23].
  35. Frankie Avalon Wolfe: The Complete Idiot's Guide to Being Vegetarian. Penguin Group, 2007, s. 175, 186. ISBN 978-1-59257-682-1. [dostęp 2011-02-22].
  36. Jane Murphy: The Great Big Burger Book: 100 New and Classic Recipes for Mouth Watering Burgers Every Day Every Way. ReadHowYouWant.com, 2010, s. 304. ISBN 978-1-4587-6463-8. [dostęp 2011-02-06].
  37. Berkoff R.D., Nancy: Vegan in volume: vegan quantity recipes for every occasion. 1999. ISBN 978-0-931411-21-2. [dostęp 2011-02-22].{{Cytuj książkę}} Nieznane pola: "work".
  38. Leonard, Joanne: New Ways with Falafel: The Middle Eastern favorite has evolved from a high fat sandwich stuffer to a low fat meal magician. W: Vegetarian Times [on-line]. October 1996 edition. s. 36, 38. [dostęp 2011-02-22].
  39. Whitney, Winona: Minute Meals. W: Vegetarian Times [on-line]. June 1991 edition. s. 30. [dostęp 2011-02-23].
  40. Sefi Hendler: Falafel takes over the world. Ynetnews, 2007-08-16. [dostęp 2010-02-10].
  41. a b Charles Campion: Falling for fine falafel. W: Evening Standard [on-line]. 2002-05-09. [dostęp 2010-02-10].
  42. Greg Malouf: Artichoke to Za'atar: Modern Middle Eastern Food. University of California Press, 2008, s. 90. ISBN 978-0-520-25413-8. [dostęp 2011-02-06].{{Cytuj książkę}} Nieznane pola: "coauthors".
  43. John Ayto: The glutton's glossary: a dictionary of food and drink terms. Routledge, 1990. ISBN 0-415-02647-4, 9780415026475. [dostęp 2011-02-06].Sprawdź autora:1.
  44. Mark Bittman: For the Best Falafel, Do It All Yourself. The New York Times, 2007-04-04. [dostęp 2011-07-11].
  45. Ghillie Basan: Middle Eastern Kitchen. Hippocrene Books, 2007, s. 33. ISBN 978-0-7818-1190-3.
  46. Gil Marks: Encyclopedia of Jewish food. John Wiley & Sons, 2010, s. 183. ISBN 978-0-470-39130-3. [dostęp 2011-02-06].
  47. a b Mary Winget: Cooking the North African Way. Wyd. 2. Twenty-First Century Books, 2003, s. 33. ISBN 978-0-8225-4169-1. [dostęp 2010-04-28].{{Cytuj książkę}} Nieznane pola: "coauthors".
  48. Robyn Webb: Eat to Beat High Blood Pressure. Readers Digest, 2004, s. 140. ISBN 978-0-7621-0508-3. [dostęp 2011-02-06].
  49. Phyllis A. Balch: Prescription for Dietary Wellness. Wyd. 2. Avery, 2003, s. 119. ISBN 978-1-58333-147-7. [dostęp 2011-02-06].
  50. Katz, David; Gonzalez, Maura: Way to Eat: A Six-Step Path to Lifelong Weight Control. Sourcebooks, Inc., 2004, s. 217. ISBN 978-1-4022-0264-3. [dostęp 2011-02-23].
  51. Piscatella, Joseph; Franklin, Barry: Take a load off your heart: 109 things you can actually do to prevent, halt, or reverse heart disease. Workman Publishing, 2003, s. 296. ISBN 978-0-7611-2676-8. [dostęp 2011-02-23].
  52. House, Bonnie; Fleming, Diana; Brinegar, Linda; Kennedy, Linda; Newman, Ian Blake: The 30-Day Diabetes Miracle Cookbook: Stop Diabetes with an Easy-To-Follow Plant-Based, Carb-Counting Diet. Penguin, 2008, s. 129, 130. ISBN 978-0-399-53421-8. [dostęp 2011-02-23].
  53. Areej Abuqudairi: Jordan earns Guinness record for world's largest falafel. W: The Jordan Times [on-line]. Jul 29, 2012. [dostęp Jul 31, 2012].
  54. Largest Falafel. Guinness World Records. [dostęp $6-03-18].
  55. Largest serving of falafel. Guinness World Records. [dostęp $6-03-18].

External links | edytuj kod

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