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Szablon:Current Szablon:Infobox civil conflict Euromaidan[nb 1] (Szablon:Lang-uk) is a term for the wave of demonstrations and civil unrest that began on the night of 21 November 2013, when Ukrainian citizens started spontaneous protests in the capital of Kiev. On the previous day, 21 November 2013, the Ukrainian government suspended preparations for signing an Association Agreement and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with the European Union[4].

The protests are ongoing despite a heavy police presence, and an increasing number of university students are joining the protests[5][6][7][8]. Escalating violence in the early morning of 30 November from government forces has caused the level of protests to rise, with 350,000–1,600,000 protesters demonstrating in Kiev at the movement's peak on December 1.[9][10][11]

Spis treści

Background | edytuj kod

 Osobny artykuł: Ukraine–European Union relations.

On 30 March 2012[12] the European Union (EU) and Ukraine signed an Association Agreement; however, EU leaders later stated that these agreements would not be ratified unless Ukraine addressed concerns over a "stark deterioration of democracy and the rule of law", including the imprisonment of Yulia Tymoshenko and Yuriy Lutsenko in 2011 and 2012.[13][14][15][nb 2] In the months leading up to the EuroMaidan protests Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych urged the parliament to adopt laws so that Ukraine would meet the EU's criteria[17][18]. On 25 September 2013 Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's parliament) Volodymyr Rybak stated that he was sure that his parliament would pass all the laws needed to fit the EU criteria for the Association Agreement since, except for the Communist Party of Ukraine, "The Verkhovna Rada has united around these bills"[19]. On 21 November 2013 a Ukrainian government decree suspended preparations for signing of the association agreement[20][21]. The reason given was that the previous months Ukraine had experienced "a drop in industrial production and our relations with CIS countries"[22]. The government also assured "Ukraine will resume preparing the agreement when the drop in industrial production and our relations with CIS countries are compensated by the European market"[22].

President Yanukovych did attend the 28–29 November 2013 EU summit in Vilnius (where originally it was planned that the Association Agreement would be signed on 29 November 2013[17]) but the Association Agreement was not signed[23][24]. Both Yanukovych and high level EU officials did signal that they wanted to sign the Association Agreement at a later date[25][26][27].

Comparison with the Orange Revolution | edytuj kod

The pro-European Union protests were Ukraine's largest since the Orange Revolution of 2004, which saw Yanukovych forced to resign over allegations of voting irregularities. Although couching the 2013 events in the same East-West terms as 2004, with Ukraine "a key geopolitical prize in eastern Europe" for Russia and the EU, The Moscow Times noted that Yanukovych's government was in a significantly stronger position following his election in 2010[28]. The Financial Times said the 2013 protests were "largely spontaneous, sparked by social media, and have caught Ukraine’s political opposition unprepared" compared to their well-organized predecessors[29].

According to Lviv historian Yaroslav Hrytsak the big difference between the protesters of 2004 and 2013 is the average age of the protesters: "This is a revolution of the generation that we call the contemporaries of Ukraine's independence (who were born around the time of 1991); it is more similar to the Occupy Wall Street protests or those in Istanbul demonstrations (of this year). It's a revolution of young people who are very educated, people who are active in social media, who are mobile and 90 percent of whom have university degrees, but who don't have futures."[5] According to Hrytsak: "Young Ukrainians resemble young Italians, Czech, Poles, or Germans more than they resemble Ukrainians who are 50 and older. This generation has a stronger desire for European integration and fewer regional divides than their seniors"[8]. In a poll taken in September, joining the European Union was mostly supported by young Ukrainians (52% of those aged 18 to 29), notably higher than the national average of 38% support[30].

Protests | edytuj kod

Pro-European Union rally in Kiev, 27 November 2013 Pro-EU protests in Lviv close to the monument of Taras Shevchenko, 24 November 2013

First week of Euromaidan protests | edytuj kod

Approximately 2,000 people converged in the evening of 22 November on Kiev's Maidan Nezalezhnosti to protest the decision of the Ukrainian government to suspend the process of integration of Ukraine into the European Union[31]. Later, these protests were headed by opposition and pro-EU parties[32].

A larger rally took place on 24 November, when 100,000 to 200,000[33] people gathered on Kiev's Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square). The pro-EU demonstrators carrying Ukrainian and EU flags chanted "Ukraine is Europe" and sang the national anthem as they marched toward European Square for the rally[34]. News agencies claimed this to be the largest protest since the Orange Revolution of 2004.[35] After a small group of protesters attempted to storm the Cabinet of Ministers building, police used tear gas to disperse them.[36]

On 25 November jailed former Ukrainian Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko began a hunger strike in protest of "President Yanukovych's reluctance to sign the DCFTA"[37].

26 November 2013 statement by Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov "I affirm with full authority that the negotiating process over the Association Agreement is continuing, and the work on moving our country closer to European standards is not stopping for a single day" did not appease protesters who blockaded the government building during the cabinet session during which Azarov made the above mentioned statement[38]. The same day the city of Kiev installed a heating tent (hot tea and sandwiches were served) at Maidan Nezalezhnosti, where about 2,000 students were rallying[5]. According to Kyiv Post this was part of an "Ukrainian authorities' attempt to portray themselves as allies with the demonstrators who, in many cases, are calling for the government to resign if it doesn't sign an assocation agreement with the European Union this week"[5]. The same day it was reported that social media accounts of protesters were being hacked and disreputable messages being posted in place of rally news and commentary[5].

Thousands of Ukrainians are continuing to express support to European integration and protesting against decision of Ukrainian government to refuse signing of association with EU in Vilnius. 27 November 2013. Kyiv, Ukraine.

On 26 and 27 November 2013 Lithuanian Parliament Speaker Loreta Graužinienė and Member of Polish Parliament Marcin Święcicki spoke to EuroMaidan protesters at Maidan Nezalezhnosti[5]. Musical acts like Ruslana put on performances for demonstrators on Maidan Nezalezhnosti[39][5]. On 27 November it was reported that Kharkiv Polytechnical Institute staff allegedly checked class attendance, threatening students who did not attend in order to participate in the Kiev EuroMaidan rallies with expulsion. In other universities, administrators have forbidden students from joining pro-EU protests, posting political commentary to social media networks, and wearing Ukraine-EU ribbons[5]. According to Euronews the protesters in Kiev numbered ten thousand people, many of them students[7].

Maidan Nezalezhnosti flooded with pro-EU protesting people. 27 November 2013. Kyiv, Ukraine.

At noon of 28 November (the eighth day of protests) about 3,000 people gathered on Maidan Nezalezhnosti; no party symbols were reported, only Ukrainian flags and European Union flags.[5] The crowd would grow to 4,000 by the evening while it was again entertained by popular Ukrainian artists[40][5].

On 29 November 2013 after it became clear that Association Agreement was indeed not signed the number of protesters in Kiev went up to 10,000.[23][24][41] In Lviv protesters numbered some 20,000.[41] Like in Kiev they locked hands in a human chain, symbolically linking Ukraine to the European Union (organisers claimed that some 100 people even crossed the Ukrainian-Polish border to extend the chain to the European Union)[41]. Euronews reported that protesters in Kiev believed the rally should go on and were calling for the second Azarov Government's and President Viktor Yanukovych's resignation[42].

Escalation | edytuj kod

30 November attack on protesters | edytuj kod

Flags of Ukraine and the nationalist Ukrainian Insurgent Army flown on November 29 in Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square)

On the night of 30 November 2013 at 04:00, armed with batons, stun grenades, and tear gas, Berkut attacked and dispersed all protesters from Maidan Nezalezhnosti while suppressing mobile phone communications[10][43]. The attack spread not only onto the protesters but also onto other civilians in the vicinity of Maidan Nezalezhnosti, when the Berkut forces chased unarmed people several hundreds meters and continued to utilize batons[44]. 35 people were injured as a result of the militia raid, including a Reuters cameraman and a photographer[45][46]. Other protesters were detained[43]. Most of protesters were students[46]. At 09:20 Berkut besieged the St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery where approximately 50 Euromaidan activists, including the injured, found sanctuary[43][47]. Police spokeswoman Olha Bilyk justified the police raid by saying that protesters were interfering with preparations to decorate the square for the Christmas and New Year's holidays[48]. Minister of Internal Affairs Vitaliy Zakharchenko later apologized and claimed "riot police abused their power" and promised a thorough investigation[49]. Via state television he added "if there are calls for mass disturbances, then we will react to this harshly"[49].

On 30 November 2013 by 13:00 another spontaneous meeting was taking place at St. Michael Square near St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery as Maidan Nezalezhnosti continued to be guarded by the Berkut formations[50]. Ambassadors from some ten countries of the European Union, among which was the Ambassador of the European Union in Ukraine, Jan Tombinski, visited protesters at the meeting[50]. According to Hromadske TV, by 16:00 the meeting gathered some 5,000 people who were shouting "Won't forgive", and "Revolution"[51]. At St. Michael Square protesters started to form units of self-resistance[52]. Approximately 10,000 protesters remained in the evening of the 30th[53], with an estimated 10,000 more from Lviv travelling to Kiev on Saturday night[54].

1 December riots | edytuj kod

Estimates range that 350,000–1,600,000 attended the December 1 protests

On December 1, Kiev's District Administrative Court banned further protests in downtown Kiev at both Maidan Nezalezhnosti and European Square, as well as in front of the Presidential Administration and Interior Ministry buildings, until 7 January 2014.[55] Opposition forces planned the rally on the 1st to take place at St. Michael's Square, which is not among the banned rally locations, with a march towards Maidan Nezalezhnosti[56]. During the December 1 rally, protesters followed through and defied the ban and marched form St. Michael's Square to re-take Maidan Nezalezhnosti. Protesters broke several windows in the city council building, followed by crowds spilling out of Maidan Nezalezhnosti to the Presidential Administration building at Bankova Street and the Cabinet building (Hrushevsky Street). People chanted "Out with the thugs" and sang the Ukrainian anthem. The opposition party Batkivshchyna claimed as much as 500,000 protesters turned out for the rallies, and opposition leader Petro Poroshenko claimed 350,000 were on Maidan Nezalezhnosti. Other news agencies reported over 100,000 in Maidan Nezalezhnosti alone[57]. Other reports indicated 300,000 to 700,000 demonstrators[9].

At around 14:00, a group of protesters commandeered a bulldozer from Maidan Nezalezhnosti and attempted to pull down the fence surrounding the Presidential Administration building[58]. People threw bricks at Berkut guards. At least three people were injured outside of the presidential administration building, receiving head injuries from flying debris. AFP reporters saw security forces outside the Presidential Administration building fire dozens of stun grenades and smoke bombs at masked demonstrators who were pelting police with stones and Molotov cocktails[58]. The opposition stated that the aforementioned confrontations with police forces were organized by provocateurs and that the opposition has nothing to do with the conflict at Bankova street. They confirmed that the protests of opposition are peaceful[59]. Number of activists including People's Deputy of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko attempted to stop the tractor[60][61].

Pro-EU protests cordon off the Maidan Nezalezhnosti's streets with a makeshift barrier

Radio Stolytsia reported that Berkut riot police stopped a motorcade of protesters from heading towards the presidential mansion in MezhyhiryaSzablon:Dn, a suburb north of Kiev.[61]

The Ukrainian Interior Ministry reported that more than 300 members of the radical Bratstvo (Brotherhood) organization were involved in unlawful actions committed outside the Presidential Administration building, who acted under the direction of its leader, Dmytro Korchynsky[62].

The opposition occupied the Kiev City Council (City Hall) and the Trade Unions building. They still remain under control of the protesters[63]. At the city council building, protesters broke windows to get inside the building and occupy it. They chanted "Kiev is ours" and hung a Ukrainian flag in the window[57]. The city police warned the protesters in City Hall that they will “undertake measures” to clear the building if they do not leave it, without specifying. “The capital's police warns that in case of non-compliance with the lawful demands, the law enforcers will undertake corresponding measures to free the building from violators of law.”[61]

Secretary of the Writer's Union of Ukraine Serhiy Pantiuk took a dozen women to shelter inside the Union building. After other protesters fleeing Berkut police took refuge in the building as well, police broke in though the rear windows and started beating everyone in the building, including women, journalists, and building security. There were up to 50 people hiding inside[64].

The official websites of Ukraine's presidential administration and interior ministry that controls more than 300,000 law enforcement personnel had been down for most of the day. Local media reports claim that hackers are the cause, although no group has taken responsibility for it.[61]

At 20:00, an angry mob of thousands attacked Berkut riot units who were guarding the statue of Vladimir Lenin[61]. The crowd attacked with rocks, ladders, and other objects, while troops responded by deploying tear gas and making random attacks at the crowd. At least one Berkut member was heavily injured and the troops were forced to flee on a bus once overtaken by the crowd[65].

Graffiti inscription "Revolution" ("Революція")

The opposition announced a national strike and launched construction of a tent city on Maidan Nezalezhnosti. Writer Irena Karpa also encouraged the nation to go on general strike – to skip work, boycott Russian products and continue the protests[61]. Opposition leaders stated that Yanukovych is planning on declaring a state of emergency on December 2.[61] Klitschko denounced the attempt to storm the president's office as an effort to provoke the government into declaring a state of emergency. He called for everyone to stay on the square in a peaceful protest[66]. He later called for the president's resignation, stating "They stole the dream. If this government does not want to fulfill the will of the people, then there will be no such government, there will be no such president. There will be a new government and a new president," he said to cheering crowds[67]. Meanwhile, Svoboda leader Oleh Tyahnybok called for a national strike and in an official release called for a "social and national revolution," saying a revolution has started in Ukraine[68]. Opposition leader Yuri Lutsenko also called for a revolution to take place, saying "Our plan is clear: this is not a rally, not an action. This - is a revolution," and called to complete the revolutions which took place in 1991 and 2004[69].

Jaroslaw Kaczynski, leader of Poland's largest opposition party Law and Justice took part in the day's protests on Maidan Nezalezhnosti; together with Henryk Wujec, an adviser to Polish president Bronislaw Komorowski; and Polish European Parliament MEP Jacek Protasiewicz[70]. In his speech, Kaczynski emphasized that Ukraine's EU membership will allow Polish and Ukrainian nations to be together, and that is crucial for their future. He also confirmed his will to continue his twin brother's - late Polish president Lech Kaczynski - political legacy concentrated on the same goals[71].

About 850 troops stationed in buses waited overnight.[potrzebny przypis]

Injuries | edytuj kod

Five riot police sustained bodily injuries and three have been chemically poisoned from an unknown gas, Ukrainska Pravda reports. As of 4 p.m. 22 people had been injured and sought medical attention in emergency rooms in clashes during the demonstrations in Kiev, according to the health department of the Kiev City State Administration. In most cases, those injured were treated for chemical burns of the eyes and bodily injuries, according to Interfax-Ukraine. Kiev police spokeswoman Olga Bilyk said by telephone that around 100 officers were wounded in the clashes. A mayor's office official said nearly 50 demonstrators had also been treated by doctors for various injuries[58]. Kyiv Post reported on eyewitness accounts of the demonstrations that suggest that there might have been hundreds of protesters injured[72]. According to the Department of Health, by the end of the second day of clashes, 109 protesters were hospitalized with 165 injured in total[73].

Telekrytyka, a media watchdog compiled a list of over 40 injured journalists and photographers, with many report said they were deliberately beaten by the riot police while displaying their journalist IDs.[61] New York Times, Ukrainska Pravda, and Agence France-Presse photographers were among at least 30 journalists injured in clashes with police. One journalist was hit with an explosive device during clashes with Berkut on Bankova Street[61], and New York Times photographer Joseph Sywenkyj was injured when a piece of a sound grenade struck him in the face[74]. A photographer from The InsiderSzablon:Dn notified police that he was a journalist, but was assaulted along with his cameraman anyway[61]. Euronews’ cameraman Roman Kupriyanov was also beaten by riot police[75]. Euronews reported (on 1 December) "He was one of several media personnel who claim to have been deliberately targeted by the riot police"[75]. Dmytro Volkov, of 1+1 reported police were aiming at journalists’ equipment. Photographer Serhiy Supinskiy was attacked by a riot police officer on Bankova Street, he said. The officer deliberately hit his photography equipment, and destroyed his flash and lens.[61]

A 15 year old girl from Okhtyrka was presumed dead from the protests at the hands of Berkut troops, but was later found to be alive[76].

December 2 – present | edytuj kod

Vitali Klitschko addresses the crowds at Independence Square, Kyiv, 19.27, 03.12.2013 - as shown live on screen overlooking the Square

The day after the riots, peaceful protests continued to take place and occupy Maidan Nezalezhnosti in Kiev, with tens of thousands attending, while thousands blocked the main Cabinet buildings[77]. According to BBC correspondent David Stern "They have set up almost a military camp of sorts, and have erected a very impressive barricade around the perimeter of the demonstration"[78]. The New York Times's David M. Herszenhorn described the square as "oddly festive" and added that "Protest leaders, sensing that momentum had turned to their advantage, continued to add infrastructure to their operation, bringing in television monitors and erecting the small tent city"[79]. Elsewhere, Lviv, Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk announced a general strike in solidarity with the movement[80]. 1,000 Internal Troops (National Guard) were deployed to Kiev around key government buildings by the Interior Ministry. The parliament committee on statehood and self-governance recommended a vote of no-confidence in Prime Minister Mykola Azarov's government, opening a way for such a vote on 3 December. The Kiev City Council building remained occupied by protesters[81].[nb 3] The people working at Kiev City Council were still being allowed to come in and do their usual jobs.[77][nb 4]

On 3 December the Azarov Government survived the vote of no-confidence with 186 MP's supporting the motion, and all but 1 Party of Regions MP abstaining from the vote; at least 226 votes were needed[82]. However; the Communist Party of Ukraine, that had not supported this vote, stated that on 4 December they would put forward their own no confidence motion, based on the government’s management of the economy[83]. If the 186 MP's supporting the 3 December motion will support the 4 December no-confidence motion – which they have stated they will – the 4 December motion will pass with over 226 votes[83]. In his speech to parliament[nb 5], Azarov warned protesters occupying the Kyiv City State Administration that force could be used to remove them.[85] In the morning of 3 December Euronews described the situation in Kiev as "calm at the moment, however tensions have remained high"[86]. Clashes with riot police did occur outside of parliament[87]. In the afternoon, in freezing conditions, several thousand protesters rallied on Maidan Nezalezhnosti were opposition leaders gave passionate speeches[88]. After the speeches, the crowd moved to the Presidential Administration Building[88].

Protests across Ukraine | edytuj kod

A November 24 protest in Ivano-Frankivsk saw several thousand protestors gather at the regional administration building[89]. No classes were held in the universities of western Ukrainian cities such as Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Uzhhorod[90]. Protests also took place in other large Ukrainian cities: Kharkiv, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Luhansk, Lviv, Uzhorod, etc. The rally in Lviv in support of the integration of Ukraine into EU was initiated by the students of local universities. This rally saw 25–30 thousand protesters gather on Prospect Svobody (Freedom Avenue) in Lviv. The organizers planned to continue this rally till the 3rd Eastern Partnership summit in Vilnius, Lithuania, on 28–29 November 2013.[91]

7 people were injured after 40 titushki (thugs) attacked a tent encampment in Dnipropetrovsk, which was ordered clear by a court on November 25.[92][93] Officials estimated the number of attackers to be 10-15[94], and police did not intervene in the attacks[95].

In Odessa, 120 police raided and destroyed a tent encampment made by protesters at 5:20 in the morning. The police detained three of the protesters, including the leader of the Odessa branch of Democratic Alliance, Alexei Chorny. All three were beaten in the police vehicle and then taken to the Portofrankovsk Police Station without their arrival being recorded. The move came after the District Administrative Court hours earlier issued a ban restricting citizens’ right to peaceful assembly until New Year. The court ruling places a blanket ban on all demonstrations, the use of tents, sound equipment and vehicles until the end of the year.[96]

On November 26, a rally of 50 was held in Donetsk[97].

On November 28, a rally was held in Yalta; university faculty who attended were pressured to resign by university officials[98].

On November 29, Lviv protesters numbered some 20,000.[41] Like in Kiev, they locked hands in a human chain, symbolically linking Ukraine to the European Union (organisers claimed that some 100 people even crossed the Ukrainian-Polish border to extend the chain to the European Union)[41].

On December 1, the largest rally outside of Kiev took place in Lviv by the statue of Taras Shevchenko, where over 50,000 protesters attended. Mayor Andriy Sadovy, council chairman Peter Kolody, and prominent public figures and politicians were in attendance[99]. An estimated 300 rallied in the eastern city of Donetsk demanding that President Viktor Yanukovych and the government of Prime Minister Mykola Azarov resign[100]. Meanwhile, in Kharkiv, thousands rallied with writer Serhiy Zhadan, during a speech, calling for revolution. The protest was peaceful[101][102][103]. Protesters claimed at least 4,000 attended[104], with other sources saying 2,000.[105] In Dnipropetrovsk, 1,000 gathered to protest the EU agreement, show solidarity with those in Kiev, and demand the resignation of local and metropolitan officials. They later marched, shouting "Ukraine is Europe" and "Revolution"[106]. EuroMaidan protests were also held in Simferopol (where 150-200 attended)[107], and Odessa[108].

On December 2, in an act of solidarity, Lviv Oblast declared a general strike in order to mobilize support for protests in Kiev[109], which was followed by the formal order of a general strike by the cities of Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk[80].

Protests outside Ukraine | edytuj kod

Demonstration in Paris, France

Smaller protests or Euromaidans were also organized starting on 24 November by Ukrainians and local citizens of Ukrainian descent in countries such as Poland, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, Austria, Czech Republic, Bulgaria, United States and Canada[110]. More than one hundred Ukrainians had gathered in Prague to support Euromaidan in Ukraine[111].

Similar events were reported on 26 November in Warsaw[112], Krakow[113], Łódź[114], Poznań[115], Wrocław[116], Katowice[117], Lublin[118], Rzeszów[118], Olsztyn[119], Elbląg[120], Zamość[121], Biały Bór[122], London, Paris, Munich, Berlin, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Budapest, Oslo, Bergen, Stockholm, Malmö, Lund, Vienna, Vilnius, Tbilisi, Toronto (150)[123], Winnipeg (100+)[124], Saskatoon[125], Edmonton (150)[126], Cleveland (Parma)[127], Sofia[128], and The Hague[129].

In Vienna, hundreds came with banners to support the rapprochement between Ukraine and EU. In London, the gathered Ukrainian community chanted the slogan "Ukraine to Europe"[110].

In Sofia, Ukrainians in Bulgaria and Bulgarian citizens have called a rally for November 27 in support of pro-EU protesters in Ukraine. Bulgarian organizers have suggested a bond between Ukrainian protesters and anti-government protesters in Bulgaria, who have been calling for the resignation of left-wing PM Plamen Oresharski since mid-June. According to them, both nations must unite against "ever-hungry oligarchsSzablon:Dn who forcibly push us towards Russia."[128]

On 29 of November 2013, on the Polish-Ukrainian border crossing in Medyka, Poles and Ukrainians created a human chain as a symbol of a solidarity between the two nations, and as a sign of support for pro-EU protesters in Ukraine[130].

On 1 and 2 December, rallies were held in several Canadian cities, including Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton (250 protesters)[131], Regina, Winnipeg[132], Toronto, Ottawa, and Montreal[133]. Protests were also held in the American cities of Chicago (200+)[134], Philadelphia (40)[135], Miami (50)[136][137], and Warren, Michigan[138] (outside Detroit).

On 2 December supporters picketed the Embassy of Ukraine in Moscow holding a banner reading "Ukraine, we are with you". 11 participants were detained by police and later released on grounds of "violating procedure"[139][140]. Also on 2 December hundreds of people marched through the Armenian capital Yerevan to denounce a visit of Russian President Vladimir Putin and to express their solidarity with the pro-European rallies in Ukraine[141].[nb 6] Local media reported that 100 participants were arrested by police[141].

Demands | edytuj kod

On 29 November, a formal from organizers resolution proposed the following:[5]

  1. Form a coordinating committee to communicate with the European community.
  2. To state that the president, parliament and the Cabinet of Ministers aren't capable of carrying out a geopolitically strategic course of development for the state and calls on Yanukovych's resignation.
  3. Demand the cessation of political repressions against EuroMaidan activists, students, civic activists and opposition leaders.

The resolution stated that on 1 December, on the 22nd anniversary of Ukraine's independence referendum, that the group will gather at noon on Independence Square to announce their further course of action[5].

A petition to the U.S. White House demanding sanctions against Viktor Yanukovych and Ukrainian government ministers gathered over 100,000 signatures in four days.[142][143][144][145]

Students nationwide have also demanding the dismissal of Minister of Education Dmytro Tabachnyk.

Responses | edytuj kod

Government response | edytuj kod

President | edytuj kod

President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych called for calm in a 25 November televised interview, after skirmishes between riot police (who had fired tear gas at protesters) and demonstrators who had hurled traffic cones and rocks at security forces[38][146]. On 27 November Yanukovych stated "I applaud those who came out into the streets in support of European integration but there are also those who turned up to solve their political problems, who had flags and slogans which they will use for the 2015 presidential elections. I could see that very clearly"[147].

In his address to the Ukrainian people President Yanukovych stated that he is deeply outraged by those events that took place at night at the Independence Square on 30 November[148]. "I condemn the actions that led to violent confrontation and suffering of people[148]. I demand from the General Prosecutor urgently provide me and the Ukrainian society with results of immediate and impartial investigation for appropriate punishment", stated Yanukovych[148].

In a 2 December 2013 President of the European Commission José Manuel Barroso and President Yanukovych agreed that "a peaceful and political solution is the only way for Ukraine out of the current situation", and according to the EU Yanukovych "explicitly confirmed the intention to investigate into the use of force by the Ukrainian police and to inform the public about the results"[149]. In an interview with journalists from four TV channels he called on government and opposition to unite in investigating and identify what he called “provocateurs" "hiding behind children” and he stated “As for the people who came out to the rallies, any show of public will is always confirmed by everybody’s freedom and right to speak their mind. It doesn’t matter if it is the representatives of the government, law enforcement agencies or the participants of the rallies – all must respect the law”[150]. “I am convinced that a bad peace is better than a good war,” was also added[150].

Prime Minister | edytuj kod

Prime Minister Mykola Azarov contrasted the EuroMaidan protests to those of the Orange Revolution of 2004, stating his government "[knows] that such events are financed, for example. If this is carried out within a legal framework, fine," he told Russian television on 24 November. "If all this is carried out in violation of the law, then, of course, the government will not act like it did in 2004, when the technology of overthrowing the lawful government was being worked out quite simply before our very eyes. In this case, we won't fool around."[151] In a 26 November interview with Euronews, Azarov stated he was "not surprised" by the demonstrations "It was our government who drafted the agreement, and we were constantly explaining to our people why we were doing it. So it's quite natural that when we made our announcement a significant number of people took to the streets demanding that the process of European integration be continued. This active involvement of our people proves again that, in general, our policies on EU integration were correct"[152].

On his Facebook page commenting on the events of November 30, he stated that he is deeply outraged and worried what happened at night at the Independence Square[153]. "Those details from various sides that I have at the moment, do not allow a clear conclusion: Who is responsible for this provocation", Azarov said.[153] At interview to the ICTV channel the first deputy Prime Minister Serhiy Arbuzov said that Ukrainians should calm down and figure out what really happened during the forceful disperse of a peaceful protest at "Maidan"[154]. On December 1, Azarov claimed that the protesters were ignorant to the economics behind the decision to pull out of the EU Association Agreement, and that they were 'governed by myths and emotions'[155]. The next day Azarov refereed to the protests as resembling an coup d'état[156].

Ministers | edytuj kod

On 26 November, Education Minister Dmytro Tabachnyk addressed Ukraine's students saying "When 'hot heads' push you towards illegal actions, I hope you find the strength and courage not to succumb to provocations. Don't violate public order. Remember your parents and loved ones who always worry about you. Be careful and vigilant! Take care of yourself! You have a great life ahead of you and you need to choose its direction and movement...”

On 3 December Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov assured parliament "I will draw conclusions from what has happened [the dispersal of the pro-EU rally on November 30]. Resolute government reshuffling is coming"[157].

Political resignations | edytuj kod

Following the 30 November violent crackdown on protesters, Serhiy Lyovochkin, Chief of Staff of the Yanukovcyh administration, resigned from his position within hours of the event. But President Yanukovych turned down his application for resignation and Levochkin continued his tasks[158].

Party of Regions MPs David Zhvania[nb 7], Volodymyr Melnychenko and Inna Bohoslovska left the party in protest, with Bohoslovska calling for the president's resignation[163][164]. On 1 December, MP Mykola Rudkovsky resigned from the Party of Regions parliamentary faction (not from the party)[164][165].[nb 8] On 2 December Viktor Bondar[nb 9] announced his resignation from the party[171], and Bohoslovska predicted that more MPs will soon leave the Party of Regions faction[164].

Parliament | edytuj kod

Ukrainian parliamentarian David Zhvania stated 2 December that the Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's parliament) would force the second Azarov Government to resign the next day[172]. The same day Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada Volodymyr Rybak confirmed that this vote would be held on 2 December and that he was "am planning to invite the leaders of all political parties... They should not only raise questions, but also to find ways to resolve these issues"[173]. Eventually on 3 December the Azarov Government survived the vote of no-confidence easily with 186 MP's supporting the motion when at least 226 votes were needed[82]. However; the Communist Party of Ukraine that had not supported this vote stated that on 4 December they would put forward there own no confidence motion, based on the government’s management of the economy[83]. If the 186 MP's supporting the 3 December motion will support the 4 December no-confidence motion – which they have stated they will – the 4 December motion will pas with over 226 votes[83].

Kiev officials | edytuj kod

On November 30, 2013 the Head of the Kiev City State Administration Oleksandr Popov appealed to the city's administrative court to prohibit protests at Mykhailivska Square[174].

On 2 December 2013, the Kiev City Council condemned the police crackdown and riots of 30 November - 1 December[175].

Party of Regions politicians | edytuj kod

Party of Regions politician Serhiy Tihipko stated that "The people who gave the order [to attack protesters], and it is especially those who committed the attacks, will inevitably have to answer for it under the law"[176].

Viktor Viktorovych Yanukovych, MP and son of the president, reacted to the November 30 police crackdown by calling the events a “provocation” and blamed activists for the scuffles. On his Facebook page on December 1, he stated "The activists who possibly stayed there behaved not at all peacefully in relation to law enforcement officers, I feel sorry for the victims. There is no other word but to call it a provocation." Following his statements, the two members of his press service publicly quit.[171]

MP Vadim Kolesnichenko in an interview stated "Criminals should be in jail, but the organizers of this criminal coup should sit at the negotiating table, because they are personally responsible for all of the injuries and property damage that occurred in the capital and Ukraine" and said that those attacking police officers should be prosecuted[177].

Other Ukrainian political response | edytuj kod

After the 30 November police actions against demonstrators Ternopil Mayor Serhiy Nadal, stating he was outraged at this "crackdown", called all citizens to travel to Kiev and join the protests on December 1.[178] On 2 December he, he head of the Lviv Regional Council Petro Kolody and the Mayor of Ivano-Frankivsk Viktor Anushkevychus declared an indefinite strike[179].

Opposition leader Oleh Tyahnybok called in an official 2 December press release for police officers and members of the military to defect to 'the Ukrainian revolution'[180].

Former Minister of Defense of Ukraine and MP for the opposition party Batkivshchyna[161][181] Anatoliy Hrytsenko in his blog commented in regards to the Berkut raid on 30 November, "we went to sleep in Ukraine, but woke up in Belarus"[182].

Police response | edytuj kod

On the evening of 25 November, demonstrators, including several members of parliament, overtook a white van which they believed Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) officers were using to eavesdrop on protest leaders' cellphones. Once overtaken, hundreds of riot police descended on the scene, triggering violence clashes during a 30-minute standoff. Demonstrators seized the belongings of the van, which included several license plates, a passport, and electronic equipment used for spying, photos of which were posted online. Kiev's Interior Ministry claimed they were recovering the van because they believed it contained an explosive device, whereas the SBU said the van was used to monitor for explosives, as well as scan for radio channels that could be used to set off a bomb in the crowd. The state intelligence agency asked the General Prosecutor's Office to open a criminal investigation and to punish the perpetrators, whereas opposition leaders countered by accusing authorities of illegal eavesdropping[183].

In the early morning of 30 November, at 4am 2,000 armed Berkut police forcefully broke up the ongoing rally on Maidan Nezalezhnosti, beating protesters with truncheons and employing tear gas at over 1,000[46] who remained overnight. Protesters, including women, children[184], and passersby, were targeted indiscriminately and numerous injuries and detainees were reported[48]. The reports were corroborated by the Associated Press[185], Kyiv Post[48], Ukrayinska Pravda[186], and Ukraine's Channel 5[187]. Reuters news agency said the injured included one of its cameramen and a photographer, who was left bleeding[46]. A Danish journalist captured video of police beating and kicking defenseless men in the head; upon realizing they were being filmed, the Berkut troops attacked the journalist. "They beat me in the head and made several attempts at trying to grab my phone out of my hand,” Andersen said.[188] Authorities told the Interfax-Ukraine news agency that the decision to break up the protests came after "a number of incidents and clashes" between pro-EU supporters and the police[10]. Police spokeswoman Olha Bilyk justified the police raid by saying that protesters were interfering with preparations to decorate the square for the Christmas and New Year's holidays[48]. Maidan 2.0, a civic organization, reported that the police units who broke up demonstrations were brought into Kiev from Perevalne and Kizil-Tashi in Crimea because the authorities were afraid that the Kiev units would not attack their own citizens[189]. Oleh Tiahnybok, leader of Svoboda, also reported that some units were bused in from Luhansk[189], and Yuri Lutsenko stated the troops were from both Luhansk and Dnipropetrovsk[190]. The police denied bussing in any special units from Crimea[189].

The chief of Kiev City militia (police) Valery Koryak expressed regret over what happened on Saturday night at the Independence Square and stated that he was ready to resign[191]. The Lieutenant General of Militia, Hennadiy Moskal, stated that Koryak is covering up for Vitaliy Zakharchenko, Minister of Internal Affairs, by taking responsibility for the Berkut actions[192], while some political analysts regard the raid to have been authorized by Viktor Medvedchuk[193].

On December 1 Koryak tendered his resignation[194].

On 3 December Prime Minister Mykola Azarov assured parliament that neither he nor President Viktor Yanukovych ordered the dispersal of the rally[157].

Allegations of agents provocateur | edytuj kod

Singer and protest leader Ruslana suggested that paid provocateurs who were present have instigated fights in the protests[5].

The Kyiv Post reported the presence of titushki, or hired thugs, with video showing them numbered in the hundreds on 29 November[5]. On that same day a journalist of 5 Kanal and Hromadske.TV stated they were attacked by "athletically-built men in plainclothes believed to be hired thugs" in Mariinsky park, while "police were nowhere in sight". The attacks occurred during filming. The thugs broke the reporter's camera and stole his flash memory card.[5][195] Lyubchych said that one of the titushkas even warned policeman at the scene that they would be fired soon.[5] President Yanukovich denies the use of "thugs who enforce the government's will on the street"-tactics[42].

On December 1, opposition leader Poroshenko said there were hired provocateurs outside the presidential building. "I am stating that there are 1,500 hired thugs (outside the president's administration), they are armed and are located there for provocations."[5]

In Dnipropetrovsk, 3 athletic men assaulted 4 at a bus stop, including District Council Deputy and an assistant to MP Leonid Serhiyenko; they claim the attackers were titushki[196].

A day after announcing her resignation from the Party of Regions, MP Inna Bohoslovska claimed she had information from a witness that the government was paying football ultras UAH₴250 to participate in the provocations. She claimed this was financed by Viktor Medvedchuk and Russia. She also recalled that a year ago she spoke with government officials, who spoke of the need to use football fans for such a cause[197].

Counter movements | edytuj kod

The Communist Party of Ukraine planned to gather 2,000 supporters to a 24 November 2013 rally against signing agreements with the European Union[198]. Communists that did attend, set up tents near the statue to Lenin in Kyiv, intending to protect it from vandalism[199].

A pro-government counter protest reportedly gathered 10,000 people on 25 November[200]. The Party of Regions allegedly paid UAH₴100 to its supporters to participate in a three-hour rally, with supporters calling for "building Europe in Ukraine [...] but on terms and conditions favorable for Ukraine"[201]. According to the Kyiv Post, demonstrators held anti-EU and homophobic banners[40]. On 29 November a 2-hour 3,000 people strong pro-government rally took place on European Square[5][202]. Party of Regions member of parliament Vladyslav Lukianov told the crowd "I'm sure that our movement to Europe will never change. We support this choice. Let the land shatter from our steps. Together we will win"[5][41]. The Kyiv Post again reported offered incentives to attend and described attendants in appearance "to be homeless; still more look drunk. The crowd consists mostly of men."[5] Euronews spoke of many being "bussed in from the east of the country where pro-Russian sentiment is strong. They, too, carried national flags as well as those of the ruling Party of Regions."[24] Many in the crowed refused to talk to Euronews[42].

On 25 November in Sevastopol the Russian Bloc and the Communist Party of Ukraine organized an "Anti-Maidan"[203]. The meeting was conducted in support of joining the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia[203]. Previous rallies by the Russian Bloc in the weeks prior included EU flag burning and anti-government, and anti-Ukrainian rhetoric[204],[nb 10] On the 26th, another anti-Maidan protest was organized in Donetsk, attracting only 30 student protesters. Organizers stated that the European Union had ruined the economies of new members, and that joining would bring corruption and gay marriage[97]. The protest was counter to the pro-EU EuroMaidan protest 200 meters away, which attracted no more than 50 protesters. On the 27th, a small anti-Maidan rally was held by the Russian Bloc and Communists in Mykolaiv[206].

On November 30, several thousand protesters had been brought into Kharkiv on buses to stage a rally to support the government on Freedom Square. Some 170 buses were reported on the scene. Reports indicated attendees were paid UAH₴50 to attend[207].

A rally in support of president Yanukovych held by the Donetsk Regional State Administration and the Party of Regions was to be held in Donetsk on December 2, but was cancelled due an inability to organize enough people[208]. Later, Communist Party of Ukraine MP Antonina Khromova made statements at the Donetsk regional council, approving the use of force to remove protesters in Kiev, which was met with applause. She continued by saying that Ukraine does not need European values, namely, "same-sex marriage" and "African pan handlers"[209]. A 1 December Communist rally in Donetsk gathered about 200 mostly elderly supporters who chanted: "The union of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus is inevitable"[210].

On December 3, 1,000 attended a rally in Kiev put on by the Party of Regions to support the president[211].

Online media attacks by hackers | edytuj kod

On 2 December 2013 Ukrayinska Pravda reported that its website and that of other Ukrainian internet news sources "underwent a massive attack by hackers"[212]. It also report that its website "had been subjected to a powerful attack" on 24 November. [212]

International reactions | edytuj kod

Supranational organizations | edytuj kod

On 30 November Štefan Füle and EU High Representative Catherine Ashton released a joint statement condemning "the excessive use of force last night by the police in Kyiv to disperse peaceful protesters, who over the last days in a strong and unprecedented manner have expressed their support for Ukraine's political association and economic integration with the EU."[215]
  • Szablon:Państwo dane UN — Secretary General Ban Ki-moon stated on 3 December “I appeal to all parties to act with restraint, avoid any further violence and to uphold the democratic principles of freedom of expression and peaceful assembly”[216].
  •  NATO — When asked about "pressure put on Ukraine" the Secretary General of NATO Anders Fogh Rasmussen stated on 28 November "If anyone puts pressure on Ukraine in order to prevent Ukraine from deciding freely on Ukraine's affiliation, its alliances, then this will be in contradiction with the principles to which we all subscribed many years ago, in 1999, when an OSCE document was signed under which each individual country has the right to decide for itself. We're sticking to that principle, and we do hope that all of the other countries that signed that document do the same"[217]. Rasmussen stated on 3 December "I strongly condemn the excessive use of police forces we have witnessed in Kyiv. I would expect all NATO partners, including Ukraine, to live up to fundamental democratic principles including freedom of assembly and freedom of expression"[218].
  • OSCE — OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media Dunja Mijatović stated on 2 December her concern of the amount of violence used against the media during the demonstrations[219].

States | edytuj kod

  •  Bułgaria – President Rosen Plevneliev advised Ukrainian politicians to "listen to the voice of the people," referring to large protests against the decision in Ukraine[220].
  •  Kanada – Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird made an official statement on November 30, “Canada strongly condemns the deplorable use of violence today by Ukrainian authorities against peaceful protesters in Independence Square. These demonstrators simply want a closer association with the European Union. Freedom of speech and freedom of assembly are fundamental tenets of any truly democratic country. We call upon the Government of Ukraine to respect and indeed protect the rights of its citizens to express their opinions freely, consistent with Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe principles. Canada stands with the people of Ukraine to build a society based on freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law.”[221]
  •  Niemcy — Chancellor Angela Merkel commented on 27 November "The EU and Germany have to talk to Russia. The Cold War is over"[222]. At the 28–29 November 2013 EU summit (where originally it was planned that the Association Agreement would be signed on 29 November 2013[17]) Merkel remarked to President Yanukovych “We see you here, but we expected more"[223]. Foreign minister Guido Westerwelle stated on 2 December the huge rallies showed "the heart of Ukrainian people beats in a European way"[194].
  •  Łotwa – Foreign Affairs Minister Edgars Rinkevics tweeted: "Disturbing news from Ukraine, I condemn police violence against proeuropean demonstration in Kyiv."[224]
  •  Polska – Polish Foreign Minister Radoslaw Sikorski said that "President Yanukovych is miscalculating badly as regards the Association Agreement with EU and towards the people of Ukraine."[224] On 30 November Jaroslaw Kaczynski, leader of Poland’s largest opposition party Law and Justice, stated his intent along with other party members to travel to Kiev on 1 December, stating “We believe that the response of the whole European Union is needed, but especially Poland's response. All major political forces in Poland have to speak out as Ukraine stands at a crossroads today. It's not just about the issues related to the European Union, it is a much deeper rooted problem. We are determined to support everything that leads Ukraine to Europe, everything that will strenghten and support Ukraine's democracy," calling on Radoslaw Sikorski, Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs; Carl Bildt, Swedish Minister of Foreign Affairs; Aleksander Kwasniewski and Pat Cox, both members of the European Parliament monitoring mission to join.[225][226]
  •  Rosja — On 22 November 2013, President Vladimir Putin accused the EU of blackmailing Ukraine to sign the Association Agreement, "including promoting the holding of mass protests"[32]. Following the police crackdown and riots on 30 November - 1 December Putin stated, "The events in Ukraine seem more like a pogrom than a revolution"; he also believed "It has little to do with Ukraine's relations with the European Union"[227][228]. Putin further blamed "outside actors" for the protests, which he saw as an attempt to unsettle Ukraine's "legitimate" rulers[78]. On Russia Today Putin stated "Ukrainian opposition either not in control of situation or serves as cover-up for extremist activities"[229].
  •  Szwecja – Swedish ambassador to Ukraine, Andreas von Beckerath, wrote on Twitter, “Very disturbing reports on police brutality at Maidan. Violence against peaceful demonstrators [is] unacceptable and opposite of EU-integration.”[224] Sweden's Foreign Affairs Minister Carl Bildt tweeted that the "Repression against pro-EU manifestations in Kiev [is] deeply worrying."[230]
  •  Wielka BrytaniaDavid Lidington, the Minister of State for Europe, issued a statement on 30 November saying he "was very concerned to hear reports of police violence being used to break up a peaceful demonstration in Kyiv in the early hours of this morning. I am aware that further demonstrations are planned this weekend. I urge the Ukrainian authorities to respect the right of peaceful protest and to investigate thoroughly why police violence was used today."[231]
  •  Stany Zjednoczone — Secretary of State John Kerry stated on 28 November, the first day of the Eastern Partnership Summit in Vilnius, "Average citizens of each member country – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Ukraine and Georgia – play a prominent role in the continuing integration with the international community and this is very important"[232]. After attacks on journalist on 29 November U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine Geoffrey R. Pyatt tweeted "We strongly support the right to freedom of speech, press and assembly, and condemn today's attack on Ukrainian journalists,"[5][195][233] and on Voice of America radio, warned about serious consequences for the use of force by the government against protesters in support for Ukraine's European integration in Kyiv.[234] On 2 December White House Press Secretary Jay Carney said that the White House did not consider those demonstrations in Ukraine to be coup attempts[78], and stated “the violence by government authorities against peaceful demonstrators in Kiev on Saturday [30 November] morning was unacceptable”[150]. On 3 December he added “Violence and intimidation should have no place in today’s Ukraine. We continue to support the aspirations of the Ukrainian people to achieve a prosperous European democracy. European integration is the surest course to economic growth and to strengthening Ukraine’s democracy”[216]. Sen. John McCain issued on 3 December a statement saying "The eyes of the world are on Ukraine. Ukraine’s leaders should respect their people’s basic rights, including freedom of expression and assembly, and refrain from acts of violence against peaceful demonstrators [...] Ukrainians should not be forced to choose between a future in the west or the east. They should be free to chart their nation's future as they choose, in the best interest of Ukraine's citizens."[235]

Non-governmental organisations | edytuj kod

  • Amnesty International — Researcher on Ukraine, Heather McGill, stated that the 30 November police actions against demonstrators was "a shameful disregard for peoples right to peacefully protest. In choosing to violently disperse the demonstration early this morning the Ukrainian authorities are violating the very standards and values towards which they claim to be aspiring."[236]
  • Reporters Without Borders – "Reporters Without Borders is appalled by the scale of the violence against journalists during the pro-European demonstrations in Kiev [...] The frequency and gravity of the attacks on journalists indicate a deliberate desire to crush freedom of information"[237]
  • Transparency International – "If you look at what is happening in Ukraine these days. They just don't want to accept what the government does. They want to take this European vector of development also because in doing so, they would become more transparent and the corruption would become much, much less in the country"[238]
  • Ukrainian Canadian Congress – Issued a statement denouncing the violent used by authorities on protesters, and stated "We ask all western governments to immediately impose targeted, economic sanctions against those individuals responsible for these human rights abuses in Ukraine, including the freezing of assets and restrictions on visas."[239]

Political experts | edytuj kod

  • Taras Kuzio - Less than 24 hrs after the Ukrainian government decree suspended preparations for signing of the association agreement, political analyst Dr. Taras Kuzio taped an analysis with UkeTube, saying "If 100,000 Ukrainians don't protest, we'll fail. Moldova managed to mobilize thousands of people on the streets in support of EU integration. If they can do it, Ukraine is also able to do it."[240] In subsequent video analysis with UkeTube, Kuzio says that "Yanukovych is not longer Ukraine's future" and submits that Yanukovych is neither "pro-European nor pro-Russian, he is only pro-Yanukovych." Kuzio echoes Yulia Mostova, Editor of Dzerkalo Tyzhnya, saying that Yanukovych's only goals are "to become the wealthiest man in Ukraine, the most powerful man in Ukraine, and to stay in power as long as possible, if not indefinitely."[241]
  • Anders Åslund - "While the democratic opposition seems set to take over, Yanukovych’s own camp appears unready to apply harsh methods to suppress their protests. It is difficult to see any way out for Yanukovych [...] The main way out of the current crisis is for the regime to be ousted through defections from its ranks and for a roundtable negotiation to resolve the issues, as was the case during the Orange Revolution in December 2004."[242]
  • Former deputy in the Verkhovna Rada (Ukrainian Parliament) Taras Chornovil[243] told The Guardian on 3 December "Some of the MPs inside the Party of Regions are not dependent on the party leaders but on other influential people. Everything may change depending on what the main sponsors of the party decide. Ukraine's fate is not decided on Independence Square, or in the parliament, but somewhere in Monaco. The richest and most influential people are now making their decision"[84].
  • Steven Karl Pifer wrote in his Twitter that use of force by Yanukovych against protesters in Ukraine is a dangerous turn of events[244].
  • President of the Foundation for Effective Politics Gleb Pavlovsky posited on December 2 that the events in Kiev were not a revolution but plot against Prime Minister Mykola Azarov. In Pavlovsky's opinion, part of the Ukrainian leadership who are dissatisfied with Azarov may support the actions. In his theory, President Viktor Yanukovych can have his own political interests at stake, and may be supported internally by the government. "Yanukovych has kept Azarov for the very purpose of writing off all the sins to his Cabinet and firing him at any moment. It is possible that it is going to happen now."[245]

See also | edytuj kod

Notes | edytuj kod

  1. Vitalii Chervonenko: Ukraine's EU options 'still open'. 25 November 2013. [dostęp 2 December 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "agency".
  2. Bershidsky on Europe: Swiss Reject Pay Cap. 25 November 2013. [dostęp 25 November 2013]. Cytat: Yet the Euromaidan, as the protest campaign is known, is serious enough to give President Viktor Yanukovych a serious scare.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "agency".
  3. Ukraine’s Euromaidan: What’s in a name?. 2 December 2013. [dostęp 2 December 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  4. Ukraine drops EU plans and looks to Russia. Al Jazeera, 21 November 2013. [dostęp 24 November 2013].
  5. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Live updates of the protests, Kyiv Post (27, 28 & 29 November 2013)
  6. Students in Ukraine threaten indefinite national strike, Euronews (26 November 2013)
  7. a b Protests continue in Kyiv ahead of Vilnius EU summit, Euronews (27 November 2013)
  8. a b In Ukraine, Protests Highlight 'Generational Rift', Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (27 November 2013)
  9. a b Киев предреволюционный. 1 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  10. a b c Ukrainian police oust pro-EU protest from landmark Kiev square. 30 November 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  11. Dispersion of students in Kyiv on 30 November. Youtube.com. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  12. European Neighbourhood Watch Issue 80, Centre for European Policy (March 2012)
  13. Ukraine's jailed Tymoshenko calls off hunger strike, Kyiv Post (16 November 2012)
  14. EU leaders:Ratification of Association Agreement and DCFTA depends on settlement of Tymoshenko-Lutsenko issue, Kyiv Post (20 July 2012)
  15. Ukraine's Lutsenko jailed for 4 years (updated), Kyiv Post (27 February 2012)
  16. Ukraine President Viktor Yanukovych pardons Yulia Tymoshenko allies, BBC News (8 April 2013)
    Ukrainian leader Yanukovych pardons Tymoshenko ally, BBC News (7 April 2013)
    Ukrainian president pardons Lutsenko and Filipchuk – decree[martwy link], Interfax-Ukraine (7 April 2013)
  17. a b c EU Commissioner Fule expects Rada to pass European integration bills on November 21, Interfax-Ukraine (20 November 2013)
  18. Ukranian president asks for laws to be passed to facilitate EU association agreement, Euronews (3 September 2013)
    Ukraine leader urges pro-Europe drive despite Kremlin pressure, Reuters (3 September 2013)
  19. EU-Ukraine Association Agreement to be signed, Ukraine to go to Europe – speaker[martwy link], Interfax-Ukraine (25 September 2013)
  20. Ukraine drops EU plans and looks to Russia. aljazeera.com. [dostęp 21 November 2013].
    Ukrainian government issues decree to suspend preparations for signing of association agreement with EU, Interfax-Ukraine (21 November 2013)
    Rada votes down all bills on allowing Tymoshenko's medical treatment abroad, Interfax-Ukraine (21 November 2013)
  21. Cox-Kwasniewski mission to continue until Eastern Partnership Summit, Interfax-Ukraine (21 November 2013)
  22. a b Ukraine to resume preparing agreement with EU when compensation for production drop found – Boiko, Interfax-Ukraine (21 November 2013)
  23. a b Ukraine fails to sign landmark deal at EU summit, Euronews (29 November 2013)
  24. a b c Ukraine’s rejection of EU deal brings rival rallies at home, Euronews (29 November 2013)
  25. Barroso: EU to continue its dialog with Ukraine on principles of mutual respect, transparency and responsibility, Interfax-Ukraine (29 November 2013)
  26. EU and Ukraine say ‘door still open’ for future trade pact, Euronews (29 November 2013)
  27. Yanukovych says Ukraine-EU deal is suspended, not cancelled, Euronews (29 November 2013)
  28. Ukrainian Protests Compared to 2004 Orange Revolution. The Moscow Times. [dostęp 2013-12-01].
  29. Roman Olearchyk: Ukraine protests hampered by fragmenting of political opposition. FT.com. [dostęp 2013-12-01].
  30. Poll: Ukrainian public split over EU, Customs Union options. Kyivpost.com, 2013-11-26. [dostęp 2013-12-01].
  31. Ukraine Opposition Protests Europe U-Turn. 22 November 2013. [dostęp 24 November 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  32. a b Ukrainians rally over government's snub to EU. 22 November 2013. [dostęp 24 November 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "agency".
  33. Oleg Sukhov: Ukrainian Protests Compared to 2004 Orange Revolution. 25 November 2013. [dostęp 26 November 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  34. Ukraine: 50,000 rally in Kyiv calling on Ukraine’s government to sign EU deal and turn away from Russia. Thestar.com, 2013-11-24. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  35. Mass rallies in Ukraine against government U-turn on EU. 24 November 2013. [dostęp 24 November 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "agency".
  36. Ukraine police clash with pro-EU protesters. 24 November 2013. [dostęp 24 November 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  37. Jailed Tymoshenko on hunger strike over EU U-turn by Ukraine, Euronews (25 November 2013)
  38. a b Ukraine still wants historic pact with EU. W: Oman Observer [on-line]. [dostęp 27 November 2013].
  39. (ukr.) Руслана Лижичко разом із однодумцями оголосила голодування на майдані Ruslana together with like-minded hunger strike on Maidan, TSN (25 November 2013)
  40. a b Musicians liven up EuroMaidan stage, Kyiv Post (29 November 2013)
  41. a b c d e f Ukraine opposition demands leader resign after EU snub, Seven News (30 November 2013)
  42. a b c Ukraine: tension in Kyiv as pro and anti government protesters hold rallies, Euronews (29 November 2013)
  43. a b c dispersed maidan (БЕРКУТ РОЗІГНАВ МАЙДАН). Ukrayinska Pravda. 11 November 2013
  44. Berkut dispersed Euromaidan ("Беркут" розігнав Євромайдан). insider. 30 November 2013
  45. Interfax-Ukraine: Kyiv chief doctor: Some 35 people seek help from doctors, seven hospitalized after violent dispersal of opposition rally. 30 November 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper". Sprawdź autora:1.
  46. a b c d Ukraine police disperse EU-deal protesters. 30 November 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  47. Oksana Grytsenko: Witness: Steps on Independence Square 'were all covered in blood'. 30 November 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  48. a b c d Reports: Police forcefully break up protest site on Independence Square this morning. 30 November 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  49. a b Pro-EU protesters in Kiev call for government's ouster, CNN (2 December 2013)
  50. a b At the Michael Square thousands of dissatisfied Kiev residents. Ten ambassadors of EU at the meeting (На Михайлівській площі - тисячі невдоволених киян. 10 послів ЄС також на мітингу). Ukrayinska Pravda. November 30, 2013
  51. At the Michael Square 5 thousand yell "Cad onto Yolka" (На Михайлівській 5 тисяч скандують "Хама на Йолку"). Ukrayinska Pravda. November 30, 2013
  52. At the Michael Square self-resistance squads are being formed (На Михайлівській площі формують загони самооборони). Ukrayinska Pravda. November 30, 2013
  53. Back to the Middle Ages on the way to Europe: Beaten Kyiv protesters take refuge in ancient church yard. Kyivpost.com. [dostęp 2013-12-01].
  54. Сотня авто і автобуси їдуть із Львова на мітинг в Києві | Українська правда. Pravda.com.ua. [dostęp 2013-12-01].
  55. The district court has banned a month mass protests in Kyiv. 1 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  56. http://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2013/11/30/7003902/
  57. a b BBC News - Clashes amid huge Ukraine protest against U-turn on EU. Bbc.co.uk. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  58. a b c Clashes rage as 100,000 Ukrainians demand EU pact. Yahoo!.
  59. Opposition: at Bankova are acting provocateurs (Опозиція: на Банковій діють провокатори). BBC. December 1, 2013
  60. Storm of Bankova by titushky. Authorities need picture of horror to justify the following repressions? («Титушковый» штурм Банковой. Власти нужна картина ужаса для оправдания последующих репрессий?). Ukraine Criminal. December 1, 2013
  61. a b c d e f g h i j k EuroMaidan rallies on Dec. 1: A rowdy afternoon. 1 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  62. Police say over 300 radicals led attack on president's office. Kyivpost.com. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  63. Katya Gorchinskaya: Police say they identified instigators of clashes. Kyivpost.com. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  64. Olga Rudenko: Police attacks demonstrators sheltered in Writers' building. 1 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  65. Christopher J. Miller: Radical protesters clash with special police unit at Lenin monument (VIDEOS). Kyivpost.com. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  66. Maria Danilova And Yuras Karmana: Kiev riot police use gas on protesters. Times Union. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  67. Ukraine opposition leader Klitschko calls for Yanukovich to resign. GlobalPost, 2011-09-09. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  68. Oleh Tyahnybok: Oleh Tyahnybok: The time has come for a total social and national revolution!. Svoboda Party. [dostęp 2 December 2013].
  69. Луценко объявил о начале революции. 1 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  70. Protesters demand Ukraine president resign as tension mounts in Kiev - Thenews.pl :: News from Poland. Thenews.pl. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  71. Kaczyński do Ukraińców na Majdanie: Ukraina będzie w Europie, zwyciężycie (Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: <span. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: class="lang-list. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: tylko-pl">(<abbr. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: title="Treść. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: w. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: języku. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: polskim">pol.). Sprawdź listę kodów.). Wyborcza.pl. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  72. Katya Gorchinskaya: Police report injuries, negotiate return of seized buildings. 1 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  73. Błąd w przypisach: Błąd w składni elementu <ref>. Brak tekstu w przypisie o nazwie injuries
  74. Olga Rudenko: NY Times, AFP photographers among at least 30 journalists injured in clashes with police. 2 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  75. a b Euronews cameraman beaten by police in Kiev clashes, Euronews (1 December 2013)
  76. Объявленная погибшей 15-летняя девочка нашлась дома | Киев | Вести. Vesti.ua, 2013-11-22. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  77. a b Ukraine: protesters block off government headquarters in Kyiv, Euronews (2 December 2013)
  78. a b c d Ukraine PM Mykola Azarov warns of coup in making, BBC News (2 December 2013)
  79. Ukrainian President Defends Refusal to Sign Accords, as Protests Continue, The New York Times (2 December 2013)
  80. a b Три західні області оголосили страйк. 2 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  81. a b Shaun Walker: Kiev anti-government protesters remain in control in parts of city. 2 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  82. a b Ukrainian parliament fails to dismiss government, Interfax-Ukraine (3 December 2013)
  83. a b c d Ukraine government survives no-confidence motion, Euronews (3 December 2013)
  84. a b Ukraine protests grow as government survives no-confidence vote, theguardian.com (3 December 2013)
  85. http://www.kyivpost.com/content/ukraine/parliament-fails-to-fire-the-government-332938.html
  86. Kyiv protests persist as Yanukovych hangs on to power, Euronews (3 December 2013)
  87. http://rt.com/news/ukraine-no-confidence-vote-639
  88. a b Anti-government protesters persist in Kyiv, Euronews (3 December 2013)
  89. Interfax-Ukraine: Lviv students want EU deal signed. 25 November 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper". Sprawdź autora:1.
  90. Leonid Bershidsky: Ukrainians protest rejection of EU for Russia. W: Winnipeg Free Press [on-line]. 16 April 2010. [dostęp 27 November 2013].
  91. Rally in Lviv grows to 25,000. Zik.ua, 2013-11-24. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  92. Через погроми у наметовому містечку Дніпропетровська травмовані 7 людей - Відео (Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: <span. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: class="lang-list">(<abbr. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: title="Treść. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: w. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: języku. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: ukraińskim. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: (українська)">ukr.). Sprawdź listę kodów.). 24tv.ua. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  93. 12:29  03.12.13: Євромайдан. У Дніпропетровську 40 "тітушок" напали на наметове містечко [Відео] (Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: <span. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: class="lang-list">(<abbr. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: title="Treść. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: w. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: języku. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: ukraińskim. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: (українська)">ukr.). Sprawdź listę kodów.). 24tv.ua, 2013-11-21. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  94. 12:29  03.12.13: Проти "тітушків", які розгромили дніпропетровський Євромайдан, відкрито кримінальне провадження (Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: <span. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: class="lang-list">(<abbr. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: title="Treść. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: w. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: języku. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: ukraińskim. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: (українська)">ukr.). Sprawdź listę kodów.). 24tv.ua, 2013-11-21. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  95. 12:30  03.12.13: Євромайдан у Дніпропетровську розгромили за рішенням суду, проте міліція не втручалася (Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: <span. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: class="lang-list">(<abbr. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: title="Treść. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: w. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: języku. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: ukraińskim. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: (українська)">ukr.). Sprawdź listę kodów.). 24tv.ua, 2013-11-21. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  96. Odessa EuroMaidan: Heavy-handed measures by police and their questionable back-up. khpg.org. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  97. a b Европа грозит Украине развратом – "Русский блок" провел в Донецке "антимайдан" | Политика | Новости на. Gazeta.ua, 2013-11-26. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  98. M@KC: В Ялте начали преследовать участников Евромайдана – Новости Крыма | Аргументы недели Крым. An.crimea.ua. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  99. #Євромайдан Львів встановив кількісний рекорд. 1 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  100. Interfax-Ukraine: A rally of 300 in Donetsk demands Yanukovych's resignation. 1 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper". Sprawdź autora:1.
  101. Жадан прошел по харьковскому Евромайдану "путь в Европу" (ФОТО). 1 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  102. Сергій Жадан закликав студентів на революцію #Євромайдан #Харків.. Monitoring Maidan. [dostęp 1 December 2013].
  103. # Yevromaydan Kharkiv December 1, 2013. Maidan Monitor. [dostęp 2 December 2013].
  104. Харьковский Евромайдан заночует на площади Свободы. Vesti, 1 December 2013.
  105. На Евромайдан в Харькове вышли тысячи человек (фото,видео). 1 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  106. В Днепропетровске около 1000 человек требовали отставки виновных в разгоне Евромайдана. 1 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  107. M@KC: Крымский Евромайдан извинился за жестокость «Беркута» в Киеве – Новости Крыма | Аргументы недели Крым. An.crimea.ua. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  108. Владимир Ивахненко, Ярослав Шимов: Хроника "Евромайдана". Svoboda.org. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  109. Сьогодні у більшості облрад відбудуться позачергові сесії через ситуацію в Україні - Політика - ТСН.ua. Tsn.ua. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  110. a b Olena Goncharova: Ukrainians find help abroad in their struggles (updated). 28 November 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  111. Prague demonstration supports Ukraine's closer ties with EU. 25 November 2013. [dostęp 30 November 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  112. [1][martwy link]
  113. Społeczeństwo: Kraków solidarny z Kijowem. „Chwała Ukrainie” - TVP Regionalna - Telewizja Polska S.A. Regionalna.tvp.pl. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  114. FORUM Polska Agencja Fotografów / Agencja fotograficzna, Forum Fotografów, Reportaże, Reporter, Zdjęcia, Fotografia, Bank zdjęć, Sesje fotograficzne, Fotografia korporacyjna, Profesjonalna fotografia, Profesjonalna sesja zdjęciowa, Firmowa sesja zdjęciowa. Forum.com.pl. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  115. Poznań demonstruje poparcie dla Ukrainy. Money.pl. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  116. Wrocław: Wiec poparcia dla Ukrainy - Fakty w RMF 24 - najświeższe wiadomości z kraju i świata. Rmf24.pl. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  117. Studenci z Katowic demonstrowali poparcie dla Ukrainy (Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: <span. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: class="lang-list. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: tylko-pl">(<abbr. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: title="Treść. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: w. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: języku. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: polskim">pol.). Sprawdź listę kodów.). Katowice.gazeta.pl. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  118. a b Rzeszów News Dziś na Rynku protest ukraińskich studentów WSIiZ. Rzeszow-news.pl, 2013-11-26. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  119. solidarny z Ukrainą (Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: <span. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: class="lang-list. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: tylko-pl">(<abbr. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: title="Treść. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: w. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: języku. Sprawdź listę kodów. • Błąd! Nieznany kod języka: polskim">pol.). Sprawdź listę kodów.). Olsztyn. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  120. Wiec poparcia dla Ukrainy - Elbląg w www.portEl.pl. Portel.pl, 2004-11-26. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  121. Wiec poparcia dla wolnej Ukrainy Zamość godz.17-ta - Zamość - Forum dyskusyjne | Gazeta.pl. Forum.gazeta.pl, 2013-11-27. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  122. Białoborski Euromajdan. Gawex.pl, 2013-11-28. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  123. Maryam Shah: Toronto protesters support Ukrainian EU deal. 24 November 2013. [dostęp 2 December 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  124. Manitobans show support of Ukraine's EU integration. CTV Winnipeg, 26 November 2013. [dostęp 2 December 2013].
  125. Rally supports Ukraine's pro-Europe protests. 28 November 2013. [dostęp 2 December 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "author1" oraz "newspaper".
  126. Brent Wittmeier: Edmonton's Ukrainian diaspora watching turmoil back home. 27 November 2013. [dostęp 2 December 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  127. Brian Byrne: Ukrainian-Americans demonstrate at city hall; appreciating special needs; Small Business Saturday: Parma Morning Links. Sun Newspapers, The Plain Dealer, 26 November 2013. [dostęp 2 December 2013].
  128. a b http://m3web.bg:+Rally in Support of Ukrainian Protesters to Be Held in Sofia. Novinite.com. [dostęp 2013-12-03].{{Cytuj stronę}} Gołe linki: "autor".
  129. (ukr.) #євромайдан Ще фото з Гаазі (Нідерланди) Слава Україні!!! More Pictures from The Hague (Netherlands) Glory to Ukraine!!, Twitter account of Svitlana Azarova (26 November 2013)
  130. Żywy łańcuch poparcia dla protestujących na Ukrainie - TVP Regionalna - Telewizja Polska S.A. Regionalna.tvp.pl. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  131. Marta Gold: Hundreds rally in support of Ukraine protestors. 1 December 2013. [dostęp 2 December 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  132. Manitobans hold rally in support of Ukraine protesters. CBC Winnipeg, 2 December 2013. [dostęp 3 December 2013].
  133. (Press Release) Ukrainian Canadian Congress Denounces Brutal Attack on Peaceful Protestors. 1 December 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
  134. Matt McKinney: Chicago’s Ukrainian community decries crackdown on Kiev protest. 1 December 2013. [dostęp 2 December 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  135. Sulaiman Abdur-Rahman: Local Ukrainians denounce violence against protesters back home. 1 December 2013. [dostęp 2 December 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  136. Jim Heintz: Ukraine's Euromaidan: What's in a name?. 2 December 2013. [dostęp 2 December 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  137. (ukr.) EuroMaidan Miami, Facebook group/event (02 December 2013)
  138. Rally In Warren Demonstrates Support For People In Ukraine. CBS Detroit, 1 December 2013. [dostęp 2 December 2013].
  139. (ukr.) Нємцова затримали у Москві за підтримку України The police took away the opposition paddy, Televiziyna Sluzhba Novyn (2 December 2013)
  140. В Москве из ОВД отпущены участники пикета у посольства Украины. Svoboda.org. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  141. a b c Putin says organised ‘militant groups’ behind Ukraine protests, Euronews (3 December 2013)
  142. More than 100,000 people petition Obama for sanctions against Yanukovych. Kyiv Post. 30 November 2013
  143. White House website petition against Yanukovych signed by 63,000. Voice of Russia.
  144. The United States will not consider a petition against Yanukovych, but relations between the two countries deteriorate – O.Haran. unn.com
  145. Petition for sanctions against Yanukovych gathers 45,000 votes. ZIK.
  146. Putin says Ukraine-EU deal a threat to Russia. W: Al Jazeera English [on-line]. [dostęp 27 November 2013].
  147. Ukraine: Yanukovich believes some are using protests for their own political ends., Euronews (27 November 2013)
  148. a b c Yanukovych escapes the responsibility for the disperse of protest (ЯНУКОВИЧ ЗНЯВ З СЕБЕ ВІДПОВІДАЛЬНІСТЬ ЗА РОЗГІН МАЙДАНУ). Ukrayinska Pravda. November 30, 2013
  149. Results of a phone conversation between the President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych and the President of the European Commission José Manuel Barroso, Europa (web portal) (2 December 2013)
  150. a b c Yanukovych: ‘bad peace better than good war’ in Ukraine, Euronews (2 December 2013)
  151. Claire Bigg: Is New Orange Revolution Brewing In Ukraine?. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 25 November 2013. [dostęp 1 December 2013].
  152. Ukrainian PM ‘not surprised’ by people’s insistence on EU progress, Euronews (26 November 2013)
  153. a b Azarov simply "extremely outraged" about how the Euromaidan was dispersed (Азаров просто "вкрай обурений" тим, як розігнали Євромайдан). Ukrayinska Pravda. November 30, 2013
  154. Arbuzov says that nothing happened what could not be recovered (Арбузов каже, що нічого не сталося такого, чого не можна повернути). Ukrayinska Pravda. November 30, 2013
  155. http://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2013/12/1/7003938/
  156. Interfax-Ukraine: Azarov: Events in Ukraine resemble a coup. 2 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper". Sprawdź autora:1.
  157. a b Ukraine PM promises government's reshuffling, Interfax-Ukraine (3 December 2013)
  158. Yanukovych turns down his administration chief's application for resignation, Interfax-Ukraine (2 December 2013)
  159. (ukr.)Одномандатний виборчий округ №140 Single-mandate constituency № 140, Central Election Commission of Ukraine
  160. a b Powers of Persuasion, The Ukrainian Week (28 September 2012)
  161. a b c d (ukr.) Список депутатів нової Верховнcї Ради, Ukrayinska Pravda (11 November 2012)
  162. a b Rada approves composition of all committees, Kyiv Post (25 December 2012)
  163. Grytsenko Oksana: Yanukovych says police beatings not his fault. 30 November 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  164. a b c Bohoslovska: More MPs will quit Party of Regions faction, Ukrinform (2 December 2013)
  165. http://www.pravda.com.ua/rus/news/2013/12/1/7003949/
  166. (ros.)Округ №210 Single-mandate constituency №210, NB News
  167. (ukr.)Bondar Victor[martwy link], Central Election Commission of Ukraine
  168. Results of the vote count, Kyiv Post (9 November 2012)
  169. (ukr.) Бондар Віктор Васильович[martwy link], Verkhovna Rada
  170. Rebellion in Party of Regions: Independents Refuse to Give Up Their Voting Cards, Censor.NET (18 January 2013)
  171. a b Anastasia Forina: Yanukovych junior expresses concern over police beatings, his press service quits. 2 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  172. Parliament to sack government on Tuesday – MP Zhvania, Interfax-Ukraine (2 December 2013)
  173. Rybak: Parliament may consider government resignation on Tuesday, Interfax-Ukraine (2 December 2013)
  174. Popov appealed to the court against the Euromaidan: requesting to prohibit the Sunday protest (Попов подав до суду на Євромайдан: вимагає заборонити недільну акцію). Ukrayinska Pravda. November 30, 2013
  175. (ukr.) The Cabinet condemned the crackdown of peaceful protesters on Maidan, Ukrayinska Pravda (2 December 2013)
  176. http://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2013/11/30/7003856/
  177. Тетяна Ярмощук: Захоплені державні установи мають бути звільнені – Колесніченко. Radiosvoboda.org. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  178. Interfax-Ukraine: Ternopil city mayor urges fellow citizens to join popular assembly in Kyiv on Dec. 1. 30 November 2013.Sprawdź autora:1.
  179. (ukr.) Три західні області оголосили страйк Three western regions of strike, Ukrayinska Pravda (2 December 2013)
  180. Oleh Tyahnybok: Oleh Tyahnybok: I appeal to law-enforcement agents who still have their honor - choose the side of the Ukrainian revolution!. Svoboda. [dostęp 2 December 2013].
  181. They Call Themselves the Opposition, The Ukrainian Week (31 August 2012)
  182. We went to sleep in Ukraine, but woke up in Belarus (Лягли спати в Україні – прокинулися в Білорусі...). Ukrayinska Pravda. 30 November 2013
  183. Mariia Shamota: The SBU's white mini-van and how it triggered last night's clash. 26 November 2013.
  184. Dozens wounded as Ukraine police break up rally: lawmaker. Thefrontierpost.com. [dostęp 2013-12-01].
  185. Police forcefully break up demonstration in Kiev, Associated Press (30 November 2013)
  186. РОЗГІН МАЙДАНУ – ЯК ЦЕ БУЛО. 30 November 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  187. "Беркут" жорстоко розігнав #Євромайдан. 30 November 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  188. Brian Bonner: Police 'were like a machine cleaning the street,' says beating victim. 30 November 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  189. a b c Police say protesters provoked violence (VIDEO). 30 November 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper". Sprawdź autora:1.
  190. Opposition under fire for failure to protect protesters. Kyivpost.com. [dostęp 2013-12-01].
  191. Chief of Kiev militia is ready to resign but not by himself alone (Начальник міліції Києва готовий піти у відставку, але не сам). Ukrayinska Pravda. November 30, 2013
  192. Chief of Kiev militia is simply covering up Zakharchenko - Moskal (Начальник київської міліції просто прикриває Захарченка – Москаль). Ukrayinska Pravda. November 30, 2013
  193. Maidan Monitoring: Berkut's beating of the Maidan was demonstrative (Майдан Моніторинг: Побиття Беркутом Майдану – демонстративне). Maidan. November 30, 2013
  194. a b Opposition on offensive in protests against Ukraine President Yanukovych, Deutsche Welle (2 December 2013)
  195. a b (ukr.) "Тітушки" напали на знімальну групу "5 каналу" з палками та камінням "Titushky" attacked the crew "Channel 5" with sticks and stones, 5 Kanal (29 November 2013)
  196. У Дніпропетровську побили учасників Майдану, які прямували до Києва. 1 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  197. Инна Богословская: Провокации на Банковой могли организовать в Партии регионов. 1 December 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  198. Numerous parties, associations plan rallies in Kyiv on Sunday. Kyivpost.com, 2013-11-23. [dostęp 2013-12-01].
  199. Daryna Shevchenko: Heavy police protection, just for Vladimir Lenin statue. Kyivpost.com, 2013-11-25. [dostęp 2013-12-01].
  200. Huge demonstration in Kyiv in support of EU pact. 25 November 2013. [dostęp 26 November 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  201. Translated by Pavel Aprelev: Maidan 2.0: A Protest With Reservations. The Interpreter, 2013-11-25. [dostęp 2013-12-01].
  202. Demonstrators at pro-government rally at Kyiv's European Square. Kyivpost.com. [dostęp 2013-12-01].
  203. a b In Sevastopol the Russian Bloc and the Communist Party of Ukraine are gathering the Anti-Maidan (В Севастополе «Русский блок» и КПУ собирают анти-майдан). Novyi Region. 25 November 2013
  204. «Свобода»: Лозунги на маршах «Русского блока» были «откровенно антиукраинскими и антигосударственными» / 13.11.13 / Севастополь. NR2.RU, 2005-05-30. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  205. «Батькивщина»: Акции «Русского блока» – буйное помешательство и кощунство / 08.11.13 / Севастополь. NR2.RU, 2005-05-30. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  206. На митинг рядом с Евромайданом в Николаеве вышли коммунисты и Русский блок | НикВести — Новости Николаева. Nikvesti.com, 2013-11-27. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  207. Швайка назвал харьковский Антимайдан фарсом. 30 November 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  208. Новости Донбасса :: В Донецке Партия Регионов отменила митинг в поддержку Януковича. Novosti.dn.ua. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  209. В Донецке аплодировали «Беркуту» за столичный Евромайдан - Одесса.comments.ua. Odessa.comments.ua. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  210. Donetsk view: Ukraine 'other half' resents Kiev protests, BBC News (3 December 2013)
  211. Партія регіонів оголосила про початок всеукраїнської акції на підтримку Януковича. Radiosvoboda.org. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  212. a b (ukr.) Українські інтернет-ЗМІ піддаються масовим атакам хакерів Ukrainian online media are subjected to massive attacks by hackers, Ukrayinska Pravda (2 December 2013)
  213. EU’s Füle rues Ukraine’s ‘missed chance’, Euronews (26 November 2013)
  214. Key MEPs warn Ukraine authorities not to use force against pro-Europe protestors, European Parliament (26 November 2013)
  215. Joint Statement by EU High Representative Catherine Ashton and Commissioner Štefan Füle on last night's events in Ukraine. EU External Action, 30 November 2013. [dostęp 30 November 2013].{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "location".
  216. a b The UN and Washington condemn violence in Ukraine, Euronews (3 December 2013)
  217. NATO Secretary General Rasmussen: Ukraine-EU Association Agreement is beneficial for Russia as well, Interfax-Ukraine (28 November 2013)
  218. Rasmussen hopes Ukraine lives up to democratic principles, Interfax-Ukraine (3 December 2013)
  219. OSCE concerned by violence against journalists in Ukraine, Interfax-Ukraine (2 December 2013)
  220. Ukraine Leaders Must Listen to Own People - Bulgarian President. Novinite.com, 2013-11-29. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  221. Canada Condemns Use of Force Against Protesters in Ukraine. [dostęp 30 November 2013].
  222. Merkel criticises Russia on eve of Vilnius summit, EUobserver (27 November 2013)
  223. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/30/world/europe/european-union-grapples-with-disappointment-over-ukraine.html?hp&_r=1&
  224. a b c Christopher J. Miller: Police attack on Kyiv's EuroMaidan demonstrators draws international outrage. 30 November 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper".
  225. Polish opposition party leader heads for Kyiv - FOCUS Information Agency. Focus-fen.net. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  226. Redaktor wydania: Grzegorz Wierzchołowski: Jarosław Kaczyński i politycy PiS jadą na Ukrainę. "Potrzebna jest reakcja Polski". niezalezna.pl. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  227. Ukraine protests 'more like a pogrom than a revolution', says Putin, The Daily Telegraph (2 December 2013)
  228. Путин: акции в Киеве подготовлены извне, это не революция, а погром | РИА Новости. Ria.ru. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  229. Ukraine government using thug force against media covering protests, Euronews (2 December 2013)
  230. Carl Bildt. Twitter. [dostęp 30 November 2013].
  231. Foreign & Commonwealth Office: Minister for Europe concerned about violence in Kyiv. Gov.uk, 2013-11-30. [dostęp 2013-12-01].
  232. Kerry: most Eastern Partnership states make tangible progress, yet challenges remain, Interfax-Ukraine (28 November 2013)
  233. (ukr.) Ми твердо підтримуємо право свободи слова, преси і зборів, і засуджуємо сьогоднішні напади на українських журналістів. We strongly support the right to freedom of speech, press and assembly, and condemn today's attack on Ukrainian journalists., Twitter account of Geoffrey R. Pyatt (29 November 2013)
  234. Interfax-Ukraine: Ambassador: US warns Ukrainian leadership against dispersing rally in Kyiv. 29 November 2013.{{Cytuj stronę}} Nieznane pola: "newspaper". Sprawdź autora:1.
  235. US Sen. John McCain: 'The eyes of the world are on Ukraine'. Kyivpost.com. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  236. Ukraine: Freedom of Assembly crushed Amnesty International, November 30, 2013
  237. WIDESPREAD VIOLENCE AGAINST JOURNALISTS DURING KIEV PROTESTS. Reporters Without Borders. [dostęp 2 December 2013].
  238. http://www.rferl.org/content/transparency-international-corruption-commonwealth-of-independent-states/25187823.html
  239. Ukrainian Canadian Congress Denounces Brutal Attack on Peaceful Protestors « Ukrainian Canadian Congress. Ucc.ca, 2013-11-29. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  240. EuroMaidan rallies in Ukraine - Nov. 21-23 coverage. Kyivpost.com. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  241. ЮліяМостова: Буриданів самець - Внутрішня політика. gazeta.dt.ua. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  242. Anders Aslund: Anders Aslund: Euro revolution in Ukraine. Kyivpost.com. [dostęp 2013-12-03].
  243. Bogoslovska,Chornovil excluded from PR faction, UNIAN (June 23, 2009)
    Chornovil leaves Reforms for Future group, Interfax Ukraine (9 February 2012)
  244. Yanukovych will face international isolation – Pifer (Януковичу угрожает международная изоляция – Пайфер). Ukrayinska Pravda. 30 November 2013
  245. Analyst: Events in Kyiv are not revolution but plot against premier Azarov. Kyivpost.com. [dostęp 2013-12-03].

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Szablon:Political scandals in Ukraine Szablon:Ukraine topics Szablon:Anti-government protests in the 21st century

Kategoria:2013 in Ukraine Kategoria:Protests in Ukraine Kategoria:2013 protests Kategoria:History of Kiev Kategoria:Political scandals in Ukraine Kategoria:Ukrainian democracy movement Kategoria:Ukraine–European Union relations Kategoria:2013 in international relations Kategoria:Ukrainian nationalism Kategoria:2013 scandals
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